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3 Şubat 2015 Salı

SCYTHiANS iNDO-iRANiAN? OR TURANiAN TURKS?




"...first of all Iranian people don't drink Kımız, they don't buried their deads with horses, the names are not in Persian languages, they spoke Turkish, they don't erected Taşbaba/Balbals, and they don't where the same clothes as Persians or Greeks. Everything shows us that the Scyhians are Turks. Ashguz-Guz-Oguz-Skuz-Skyth-Saka-Massageatae-Turks...."







*Scythian Archer/Warrior - 530-520 c BC
*Turkish Zeibeks (Zeybek) - 1891
*Turkish Khaganate Kokturks (Göktürk) in Central Asia 5th c - 8th c AD- Stonestel with Turkish inscription, oath cup in their hands and ensign of the Khaganate; Goat pictogram on the rightsight.



TURKiSH KHAGANATE  GÖKTÜRKS MONUMENT
with ensign Goat pictogram and Turkish inscriptions ; ORKHUN









1-3 AZARBAiJAN ; 4 KYRGYZ  ; 5-6 TURKMENS ; 7 KAZAKHS ; 8 UZBEKS 9 TUVANS ; 
10 BASHKIRDS ; 11 CHUVASH ; 12 SAKHAS (YAKUTS) ; 13 BALKARS ; 14 KARACHAYS ;
15 KHASSİANS ; 16 UKRAiNE KAZAKHS ; HUNS ; SCYTHİANS ; TROY
ALL OF THEM TURKS








Costume of the Asiatics : Pants

The only people you would see wearing pants were the ‘barbarians,’ and pants didn't get invented until men tamed the HORSE...

...Sometimes these pantaloons were made of the skins of animals ; at others of rich and fine tissues embroidered or painted in sprigs, spots, stripes, cheques, zig-zags, lozenges, or other ornaments. Sometimes they fit tight, at others they hang loose and fall in large wrinkles over the shoes.

The Classical Greek did not even have a word for ‘trousers.’
'Barbarian' meaning was :non-greek speaking.




THE DiFFERENTS BETWEEN THE SCYTHiANS AND GREEKS




Dogma #4: Scythians an "Iranian" people

The claim that the Scythians were "Iranian", and therefore Indo-European, is based on the highly questionable interpretation of a few names and words transmitted by Greek sources. The evidence indicates that there were non-Indo-European peoples in Iran and Turan long before the appearance of Indo-Europeans in those regions.

Some of these pre-Indo-European peoples may have later become "Indo-Europeanized" to some extent. The Scythians, Cimmerians, Sarmatians, Medes, and Parthians were therefore not originally Indo-European, they were Turanians.

Indo-European linguistics has a tendency to claim as "Indo-European" many ancient peoples who were in fact originally non-Indo-European, but may have later become "Indo-Europeanized" as a result of ethno-linguistic convergence and hybridization.....LİNK




ROYAL SCYTHiANS
Oğuz Kurgan (Oghuz/Oguz Turks) - Курган Огуз / Ukraine


Some 3000 Scythian barrows had been discovered in the steppes of the Northern Black Sea coast from the mid 18th-century to 1990.  500-600 have been discovered in the 1980's alone. Oguz Scythian royal barrow, is from the 4th c BC.  Before excavations (1891-1981)  it was 20 m high and 350 m in diameter, It's not big anymore, besides other artifacts, they have found more then 2200 bronze plates....LİNK



DETAiL OF A SCABBARD COVER , 5TH C BC 

HUN/TURKS - NOiNULA/MONGOLiA EXCAVATİON TEXTİLE
TRACİA 4TH C BC
SAKA (iN CHİNESE SOURCES SAi) FROM ORDOS 1ST C BC
SAKA (SACAE/MASSAGATEA) KAZAKHSTAN
PAZYRYK KURGAN 5TH C BC
TURKS



ATİLLA THE HUN - A TURKISH LEADER

'There is no doubt that the Huns are Turk."
"Huns are the ancestor of Göktürks/Köktürks"
from the Chinese sources
Prof.Dr.Ahmet Taşağıl
SCYTHIANS-HUNS-TURKS






ALL TURKISH PEOPLES, UIGHURS, KÖK-TURKS,OTTOMAN TURKS, BELONG TO THAT CENTRAL GROUP OF EURASIAN HUMANITY WHICH WE ARE CALLING SCYHTIAN.....
THE EARLIEST SCYTHIAN AND THE EARLIEST INDO-EUROPEAN WERE MUTUALLY INTELLIGIBLE SISTER LANGUAGES.

THE AR AZ AS SA OR SU PEOPLES.... AZ WERE IN SOME WAY ANCESTRAL TO KASSITES AND KHAZARS.

WE MAY SUPPOSE THAT THIS SA POPULATION WAS THE LONG SOUGHT PRE-SUMERIAN. AFTER THE ARRIVAL OF THE SUMERIANS PROPER, THE SA PEOPLE SEEM TO HAVE BEEN PUSHED TO THE NORTH, TO THE NORTHERN MOUNTAINS, THE PART OF THE SUMERIAN WORLD DESIGNATED IN CUNEIFORM DOCUMENTS AS SABARTU. IN RECENT LITERATURE THESE PEOPLE ARE OFTEN CALLED SUBARAEANS.

SUMERIANS WERE THE CREATORS OF THE FIRST HIGH CIVILAZATION IN MESOPOTAMIA.
THE SUMERIANS WERE- THIS TRUTH EMERGES SLOWLY FROM THE RECENT PROGRESS OF ARCHEAOLOGY- THE PROBABLE BIOLOGICAL , AND CERTAINLY THE CULTURAL ANCESTORS OF ALL THE LATER PEOPLES CALLED SCYTHIAN.

THE MEDES, ONE OF THE GREAT PEOPLES OF ANTIQUITY, WHO APPEAR AFTER THE ASSYRIANS AND BEFORE THE PERSIANS. THE ORIENTALIST JULES OPPERT ASSERTED (IN 1879) THAT THEY WERE A TURANIAN PEOPLE. THEY WERE PRESENT NOT ONLY IN CLASSIC MEDIA ; HERODOTOS WRITES ABOUT MEDES NORTH OF THE DANUBE.

THE DAHA PEOPLE (DACIANS) RULE IN CENTRAL EUROPE WAS DEFEATED BY THE ROMANS, BUT DACIANS SEEM TO HAVE SURVIVED IN RUMANIA AND IN SOUTHERN HUNGARY TOO, WHERE THEY ARE CALLED TAHO. EARLY GROUPS OF THE DAHAE MAY HAVE INFLUENCED MANY PEOPLES OF ASIA. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT THEY WERE THE ANCESTORS OF THE THRACIANS AND THE TURKS.

THE HUNS IN THE WEST THEY WERE CALLED SCYTHIANS. SOVIET EXCAVATIONS HAVE SHED LIGHT ON THE SURPRISINGLY HIGH CULTURE OF THOSE HUNS (SCYHTIANS) WHO LIVED AND BURIED THEIR DEAD IN THE SIXTH AND FIFTH CENTURIES B.C. IN THE ALTAI MOUNTAINS.

THE AVARS MANY DIFFERENT NAMES LIKE OBORS, VARS, PARS, IN ROMAN TIMES AS PARTIANS. THEIR ETHNIC GROUP UNITED WITH SIMILAR SCYTHIAN ELEMENTS.
ALEXANDER THE GREAT CONQUERED THE AVAR LAND, BUT SOON AFTER HIS DEATH ARSACUS LIBERATED THE AVAR, WHO UNDER THE ARSACID DYNASTY FOUGHT THE ROMANS UNTIL 250 AD. , WHEN ROME PUSHED THEM BACK TO THE ARAL SEA. FROM THERE MENACED BY THE KÖK-TURKS PART OF THE AVARS MOVED WEST AND IN 568 SETTLED IN THE CARPATHIAN BASIN.

Book in English:
Dr.IDA BOBULA (1900-1980) 
ORIGIN of the HUNGARIAN.



Two books / Two Statues on the cover :

"Cimmerians and Scythians"
and
"Turkish Peoples History" - LİNK

ONLY THE TURKISH PEOPLE USED THIS STONE STATUES
WHICH IS CALLED TASHBABA / TAŞBABA


GOKTURKS TAŞBABA - MUMMY iN PAZYRYK - SCYTHiAN TAŞBABA



The Turks believed in eternity of soul from the most archaic periods. There was the belief that the  dead people would start a second life and there lead a life similar to the life here. As a result of this faith, the dead people were buried with valuable or necessary materials that are needed in daily life. First, the bodies of the dead people were kept in their own tents; the first rituals were performed around the tents and also the cairns where they were buried compared with the tents. So did the Scythians and Huns....

The Turks became very sorry for the death of their beloved people and performed some applications such as shaving the hair, injuring their faces with a knife, and weeping loudly as an indication of mourning and lament. During the funeral and burial ceremonies riding horses and running around the funeral tent or the cemetery contained some cosmic meanings. So did the Scythians and Huns....

They thought that the life was impossible without a horse in their second lives. Travelling to the heaven passed beyond the other dead people and reached the heaven more easily thanks to the horses sacrificed for themselves. The idea of alleviating the souls of  dying people and benefiting from the moral powers of mighty persons is one of the reasons in applying killed vaccine tradition. So did the Scythians and Huns....

The Turks as a warrior nation believed that the enemies they killed in their lives would serve them in the other world. Due to this belief, balbals (stone statues / and taşbaba as himself) representing   the enemies killed by them were erected around the cemeteries of dying people. So did the Scythians and Huns....





"Carthasis is not a name, the meaning in Turkish is "his brother" Kardaschi" - Kardeşi is in Turkish ....They spoke Turkish.
Scythians are the ancestors of today Turks.
You can see it also in Yakut Turks, they called themselves Sakha, like Saka- Sacae - Scythians Sakas.






2600-year-old Issyk Inscription.
Two lines of Saka inscription that changed view on the history of the Türkic people....

The oldest inscription in Türkic alphabet, the Issyk Inscription, written on a flat silver drinking cup, was found in 1970 in a royal tomb located within Balykchy ( Issyk), a town in Kyrgyzstan near 
Lake Issyk, and was dated by 5-th c. BC.

Elshad Alili, Rizwan Huseynov 2012  -  LİNK



New Interpretation of the Issyk Epigraphs

The Issyk epigraphs draw special attention of many scientists all over the world, since they could reveal an interesting story about cultural roots of ancient Turks in Central Asia. The existence of the written language back then that belonged to our common ancestors was proved by various runic monuments discovered in the region. Elshad Alili, an Azerbaijani historian and researcher of ancient Turkic onomatology and toponymy, is one of the scholars who presented a new interpretation of the Issyk epigraphs based on the previous findings made by Altay Amanzholov, great Kazakhstani archeologist. 

In this regard, he paid special attention to phonetic misinterpretation of the texts and suggested his own version of transcription. The result of his interpretation differs from earlier versions and proves a historic fact, that Scythians had Turkic origin. 

Alili asserts that general bulk of Saka tribes used Turkic language and confirms theory about existence of Turkic runic language in V-VI B.C. Alili states, that this language is of authentic origin and every runic symbol has its own ideographic expression. Almost every word on the Issyk cup is present in the vocabulary of ancient Turkic language and only one word corresponds to Middle Turkic period; in addition, sentences correspond to grammatical system of ancient Turkic language. In the light of translation made by Alili, ideas about purposes of using Issyk silver cup by ancient
people gain new prospects.

Elşad Alili, historian, candidate for a degree in the Institute of Human Rights of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. Participant of the ‘Azer Globe’ Institute projects. Main occupation: researches in the field of Turkic languages   - PDF LİNK








"Not a single Greek, Latin (Roman), Byzantine, Arab, or Persian author ever claimed that the Scythians spoke Persian (Iranian) language, although many of these writers have stressed the finest details of their everyday life, culture, beliefs, customs, and habits.

Especially important is the fact that Herodotus, whose information is routinely used by the Scythologists, was a native of the Asia Minor city of Halicarnassus, in one of the ancient Persian satrapies, he could not fail to distinguish the Persian (Iranian) vernaculars from the others, especially since he visited Persia and not once met Iranians outside of Persia.

However, Herodotus never says anywhere that the language of the Scythians was Persian or Persian-like. He writes that the Scythians and Sauromates are related tribes, close in way of life and language, but cites very little information on their language, but even that limited information, as we shall see below, confirms the paradigm about the Türkic-linguality of the Scythians."

Scythians, Balkars, and Ossetians
K.Laipanov, I.Miziev
Origin of the Türkic peoples






§ 3. What is the basis for Scytho-Iranian theory? If this theory reflects the reality, it should be based on all pertinent data: linguistic, religious - mythological, ethnographic and archeological data.

The noted expert on Scythian history L.A.Yelnitskiy, on the basis of the comprehensive analysis of historical works and factual materials, comes to a conclusion that the vestiges of Scythian culture for a long time and persistently languished in the cultures of Türko-Mongolian (and in a smaller degree in Slavic and Finno-Ugrian) peoples [Yelnitskiy L.A., 1977, 243]. Archeological materials, especially the so-called animal style art, also neither confirm nor deny the affinity of Scythian and Türko -Mongolian cultures. As to the religious attributes, it is possible to state the following: if Scythians were Iranian-lingual, they would have had a common deity with Persians, and would not be fighting them as long and persistently as described by Herodotus. Further we shall see, that the names of the Scythian gods can be explained based on the Türkic language.

The body of archeological material gives L.A.Yelnitskiy a basis to affirm that in the body of Scythians were few of the Iranian elements. He writes: ‘It inclines to think, besides, that it is possible to speak about Iranism of Cimmerians and Scythians only with reference to some components of these collective names’ [Yelnitskiy L.A., 1977, 241].

Hence, the Scytho-Iranian theory cannot be with certainty based on ethnographic, religious - mythological and archeological materials. The (Russian - Translator’s note) official historical science surmises that it is based on linguistic data, which has a decisive significance for the interpretation of ethnic ancestry of ancient tribes.

Emergence of the Scytho-Iranian theory begins with ‘finding’ of the Iranian roots in Cimmerian, Scythian and Sarmatian words preserved in various sources. K.Müllenhoff  begins this etymological research, and Vs.Miller and M.Fasmer continue it. After them the Scytho-Iranian theory for (Russian - Translator’s note) official historical science becomes axiomatic.

In the Soviet time, V.I.Abaev was working persistently and purposefully on Scythian etymology from the point of view of the Ossetian language, and he invented a distinct Scythian or Scytho-Sarmatian language in the Indo-European language group. In his work, ‘Dictionary of Scythian Words’ are 353 Scythian words found in the sources, which by phonetical transformations are converted into Old Ossetian lexical units [Abaev V.I., 1949, 151-195].

Before the analysis of Abaevan etymologies, let’s address the V.I.Abaev’s statement about the value of his studies: ‘I subjected to an analysis the undoubtedly Iranian elements and I hope that this ends the light-weighted and irresponsible speculations on Scythian material which do not have anything common with a science ‘ [Ibis, 148]. When a scientist plunges on potential opponents with such zeal, it already tells about the weakness of his position. The Abaev’s etymologies in reality suffer an unsystematic character and many semantic disconnects.

V.I.Abaev and his predecessors begin the Scytho-Iranian etymology with personal names of the Scythian progenitor Targitai and his sons Lipoksai, Aripoksai, Kolaksai.

Targitai, in the opinion of the supporters of the Scytho-Iranian theory, consists of two parts: darga and tava. In Old-Iranian darga ‘long’ or ‘sharp’, tava ‘power, force’, Targitai is thus ‘Longostrong or Arrowstrong’ [Abaev V.I., 1949, 163; Miller Vs., 1887, 127].

From the positions of Türkic language the word Targitai consists from targy or taryg - Old Türkic ‘farmer’ and soy~toy - Türk. - ‘clan’; as a whole it is ‘Clan or Ancestor of the Farmers’. Besides, the name Targitai is met not only in Herodotus, it also appears with Avars as a Türkic name. Theophilact Simocatta (the historian of the 7 c.) informs, ‘Targitiy is an outstanding man in the Avar tribe’ [Simocatta Th., 1957, 35]. Menandr the Byzantian informs that in 568 the Avar leader Bayan has sent Targitai to Baselius requesting a concession [Byzantian Historians, 1861, 392]. In 565 Avars sent the same Targitai as an ambassador to Byzantium [Ibis, 418]. In the 2 c. Polien informs that Scythians, living at Meotian (Azov) Sea, had a famous woman named Tirgatao [Latyshev S.V., 1893, 567]. Hence, these Scythians were also Türkic speaking.

Lipoksai is a senior son of Targitai. The etymology for this word Abaev borrows from Fasmer. The second part, in his opinion, consists of a root ksaia~khsai ‘to shine, to sparkle, to dominate’, Ossetian. - ‘queen, dawn’; the first part is not clear, there can be a distortion instead of Khoraksais: compare Old Iran. hvar-xsaita ‘sun’, Pers. Xorsed [Abaev V.I., 1949, 189].

Let us compare it with the Türkic etymology. Türk. soi ‘clan, family, relatives, ancestors, generation, offspring, stock, origin’; ak ‘white, noble, rich’; aksoi ‘ a noble, rich clan; sacred clan, forefather’ etc. For Türkic peoples the names with an element soi is a usual phenomenon: Aksoi, Paksoi, Koksoi. The first part is lip~lipo~lep is ‘border’. As a whole, Lipoksai ‘Sacred Clan with (or Protecting) Borders, i.e. its Country’.

Arpoksai is a middle son of Targitai. The first part Abaev at once transforms in apra and ‘water’ and deduces from the Iranian roots ap ‘water’ and Ossetian ra, arf ‘deep’; apra ‘water depth’; ksaia ‘possessor’; apra-ksaia ‘Possessor Of Waters’ [Abaev V.I., 1949, 189].

Let us compare it with the Türkic etymology. We already know about the second part: aksoy ‘a sacred clan, noble clan’. The first part - arpa ‘ barley, grain, product ‘; arpalyk ‘possession of land’; Arpaksai ‘Head of a Clan Possessing Land, Territory, or Clan of the Farmers’.

Kolaksai is a younger son of Targitai. Per Fasmer and Abaev, the second part ksaia ‘shine, sparkle, dominate’, in Ossetian khsart ‘valour’, khsin ‘princess’, khsed ‘dawn’ etc.; the first part is not clear, maybe, it is a distortion instead of Khoraksais, compare Old. Iran. khvar-khshaita ‘sun’ [Abaev V.I., 1949, 189]. The supporters of the Scytho-Iranian theory sometimes lead this name to the phonetic form of Persian Skolakhshaia and announce Kolaksai as a king of the Persian clan Skol (Skolot) ~ Scythians [Dovatur A.I., 1982, 207-208].

Let us compare it with the Türkic etymology. The second part of a word Kolaksai - aksai ‘a noble, sacred clan’; the first part - kola-kala ‘city, capital’; Kolaksai ‘Noble, Sacred Clan Of a (Protecting) Capital, Country’.

If we arrange in order the Iranian etymologies for the names of the father Targitai and his three sons Lipoksai, Arpoksai and Kolaksai, we receive: Targitai ‘Longostrong’, Lipoksai ‘Shine Of The Sun’, Arpoksai ‘ ‘Possessor Of Waters ‘, Kolaksai ‘ Shine Of The Sun or Skolakhshaia’. There is no etymological, semantical and lexico-structural system.

Let us consider the system in the Türkic etymology of the names of the father and his three sons. Targitai ‘Farmers Clan Noble Ancestor’, Lipoksai ‘Border Protecting Noble Clan’, Arpoksai ‘Protecting Possession Noble Clan’; Kolaksai ‘Protecting Capital (i.e. Kingdom) Noble Clan’. The last, the younger son, as relayed by Herodotus, accepts the kingdom from his father after he brought home the golden tools fallen from the sky: the plough, yoke, hatchet, and cup [Herodotus, 1972, IV, 5].

Another word, the etymology of which serves as a proof of correctness for the Scytho-Iranian theory, is ethnonym Sak~Saka. As the ethnonym used by Persians for Scythians, it is considered to be a Persian word. But at the same time Persians could take it from the non-Iranian Scythians themselves. In the opinion of Abaev, Old Persian saka (with the meaning of Scyth) belongs to the totem of deer [Abaev V.I., 1949, 179]. Ossetian sag ‘deer’ from saka ‘branch, limb, deer horn, antler’. Many historians think that sak is a name of one of Scythian tribes, accepted by Persians as an ethnonym for all Scythians. None of the ancient authors notes the meaning of the ethnonym sak~saka in the sense ‘deer’, and Stephan Byzantian informs, ‘Saka are the people, so are named Scythians of ‘armor’ because they invented it’ [Latyshev V.V., 1893, Vol. 1, Issue 1, 265]. Here the word Saka approaches Türkic sak~sagy ‘protection, guard, cautious’. Besides, it should be noted that in Türk. sagdak ‘quiver’, i.e. ‘case for weapon of defense’. Sagai - ethnonym of Türkic people between Altai and Yenisei, part of Khakass people, Saka - ethnonym of the Yakuts. Thus, sagai~saka~sak is a Türkic word, which has passed into the ethnonym of one of Scyth tribes, and was accepted by Persians as their common ethnonym.

Ababa (Hababa) is the name of the mother of the Roman emperor Maximin, she was, apparently, an Alanian. Thinking that Alans are Iranian-lingual, Abaev etymologies this word thus: Iran. khi ‘good, kind’; vab ‘to weave’; thus, Khivaba ‘Good Weaver’. In Türkic ab ‘hunt’, eb~ev ‘home’, aba ‘father, mother, sister’, Ababa ‘Mother Of Hunt or Mother Of House’, i.e. ‘Fairy’ in a good sense.

Sagadar, per Abaev: saka- + - dar ‘having deers’ is the name of a tribe near Danube [Abaev V.I., 1949, 179]. In Türkic: saga - Türkic ethnonym, -dar-lar is the plural affix; Sagadar is ‘Sags’.

To prove the certainty of Ossetian speaking Scythians, Vs. Miller counted that in Scythian words the Ossetian plural affix -ma is repeated twenty times [Miller Vs. 1886, 281-282]. A more attentive analysis shows that -ma in words given by Miller may be identified with Türkic affixes of plural -ma (-la in Balkarian), or possession -my (-dy-ly), or similarity -mai.

So, all the Scythian words assembled by V.I.Abaev in his ‘Dictionary of Scythian words’ would be possible to re-etymologize with those languages, whose carriers lived and continue to live in the so-called Scythian regions. Rather, it is necessary to do it, and with the subsequent comparison of the results of the Iranian, Türkic, Slavic and Finno-Ugrian etymological studies. Only on completion of this operation it would be possible to definitely tell what ethnoses lived under the common names of first Cimmerians, and then Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans-Ases. As the given here comparisons of the Iranian etymology with the Türkic show, the Scythians most likely were not Iranians, or among them were very few Iranian-lingual; basically they were Türks, it could be expected, and Slavs, and Finno-Ugrians, for the last also have not fell from the sky, and have lived in their (ancient ‘Scythian’) regions from the most ancient times.

§ 4. What the Scytho-Türkic etymology tells? Because the Scythian etymology of Herodotus from the point of view of the Iranian languages does not prove to be true, until now he is considered to be a frivolous linguist, even though he is recognized as an outstanding historian and ethnographer [Borukhovich V.T., 1972, 482, 493]. There are no doubts that if Herodotus etymologies were subjected to research from the polyethnical point of view of the Scythian tribes, the scientific conscientiousness of Herodotus and the soundness of his linguistic descriptions of the Scythian peoples will prove to be true.

Now consider some Herodotus etymology of the Scythian words, which do not find confirmation in the Iranian languages. For example, Herodotus informs that Scythians call Amazons by the name eorpata, which in Hellenic means ‘husband killers’: Scythian eor means ‘husband’, and pata means ‘to kill’ [Herodotus, 1972, IV, 110]. Here is observed a rather transparent Türkic etymology: eor~ir~er ‘husband’, pata~eata~wata ‘breaks, beats, kills ‘. As a whole, eorpata in this sense coincides with Türkic ervata ‘kills husband’.

Herodotus informs that Scythian word enarei means ‘womanlike man’ [Ibis, IV, 67]. And the Greek doctor Hippocrates (5 c. BC) explains, that ‘between Scythians there are many eunuchs, they are engaged in female works and speak like women; such men are called enarei’ [Latyshev V.V., 1893, 63]. V.I.Abaev gives this word an Iranian etymology: Iran. a ‘not, without’, nar ‘man’, and a-nar-ia ‘not a man, halfman’ [Abaev V.I., 1949]. This word almost coincides with Türkish ineir-anair, that is translated, as in Herodotus, ‘womanlike man’.

Per Herodotus, the Scythian word arimaspi means ‘one eyed people’. Scythian arima ‘one’, and spu ‘eye’ [Herodotus, 1972, IV, 27]. Assuming that one eyed people meant half closed eyes, then arima can be determined as Türkic iarym ‘half, semi’, and spu~sepi’ slightly open eye’. Thus, Scythian arimaspi and Türkic iarymsepi ‘half blind, half open, half sighted’ almost coincide.

Herodotus connects the city Kizik with festival [Herodotus, IV, 76]. This city, located on the Asian coast of the Sea of Marmora, later began to be called Tamashalyk, which means ‘show’. The same meaning is transferred by a Türkic word kizik~kyzyk.

In the first legend about an origin of Scythians Herodotus names as their primogenitors Targitai and his sons Lipoksai, Arpoksai and Kolaksai. As we have already seen above, these names are etymologized in Türkic more convincingly than in Iranian.

The second legend about an origin of Scythians says that Heracleus, driving the bulls of Herion, came to uninhabited country. Here he run into bad weather and cold. Wrapped in a pork hide, he has fallen asleep, and at that time his horses disappeared. Waking up, Heracleus started to search for horses. In one cave he found a certain creature - half maiden, half snake. She told Heracleus that she had the horses, but she would not give them back until Heracleus makes love to her. They had born three sons. She named them Agathirs, Gelon, and younger Scyth. On advice of Heracleus, the mother arranged a competition between sons. Only Scyth could pull a bow of his father and put on his belt, therefore he remained in the country. From this Scyth, son of Heracleus, descended all Scythian kings [Herodotus. 1972. IV, 8, 9, 10].

Türkic j (dj) freely alternates with y, which in Greek is usually conveyed as g. Heracleus in Türkic Jirakl-Iirakl ‘earthly wit’; the clever wins all others, hence, he is a giant, hero. In Greek Heracleus is ‘famed hero, giant’.

The first son of Heracleus is Agathirs, more correctly, Agathiros. Here -os is a Greek name ending; ir ‘man, male, people’; agad-agas-agach ‘tree, forrest ‘ (interdental d~th was written in Russian through Greek symbol theta and sounded as ‘f’: Theodor-Feodor, Skif-Scyth, Agathir-Agafir, etc.). Agathir is ‘forrest people or people with tree totem’. Later we meet this ethnonym in the forms akatsir-agach eri with the same meaning. In Türkic language with the same semantics we have also ethnonyms Burtas (burta-as ‘forrest people’), Misher (mish-er ‘forrest people’).

The middle son of Heracleus is Gelon, in - Türkic jelon-jylan-yilan ‘snake’. This is a natural name of the son of the mother - half snake.

The younger son of Heracleus is Scyth, more correctly, Skyth-Skyt. Scyth in Iranian is not deciphered. In Türkic the word skyth consist of ski-eski-iski and -t-ty-ly. Last affix is an affix of possession in Türkic languages; the first part eske ascends, apparently, to the word ishky, i.e. pychak ‘knife’. Isky-t, Isky-ly ‘with knife, man with knife’ [Zakiev M.Z., 1986, 35, 37, 38; Smirnova O.I., 1981, 249-255]. Remarkable fact is that Türks used the part eski (eske - ishky) as an independent ethnonym [Kononov A.N., 1958, 74]. Besides, it is necessary to keep in mind that the name of Scythians arises in Assyrian documents of the 7 c. BC as Asguza-Iskuza-Ishguza [Yelnitskiy L.A., 1977, 25]. Here appear clearly the ancient name of the Türkic tribes as-ash and guz-oguz (ak-guz).

Skolot is a self-name of Scythians, its etymology could not be explained through the Iranian languages. In Türkic skolot consists of the part isky-sko, -lo is an affix of possession, -t is a second affix of possession. Skolo is skyty-skyt-skit, Skolot is ‘people mixed with Scythians’.

Alongside with ethnonym Scyth Herodotus gives still another ethnonym Savromat, applied to the people related to Scythians. Later its changed form Sarmat begins to be applied instead of Scyth. Per Abaev, Savromat ~Sarmat is an Ossetian word with a meaning of ‘black armed or dark armed’ [Abaev V.I., 1949, 184]. To name one black armed, next should be others, for example, red armed or white armed. Therefore etymology of Abaev does not convince at all. In Türkic sarma ‘bags from calf fur with hair on outside’. A rope braided from the horsehair was pulled through the ears stitched to the top edge of such a bag and attached to the saddle. In it were transported bagged provisions [Khozyaistvo, 1979, 142]. Sarma-ty, Sarma-ly is ‘man with sarma’.

Herodotus talks of Argrippeas, that they eat tree fruits. The name of the tree with fruits used for food is pontik. A ripe fruit is squeezed through a fabric, and the extracted black juice is called askhi. They lick juice and drink it mixed with milk. From the thick of askhi they prepare bread [Herodotus, 1972, IV, 23]. Many historians identify Argrippeas with Bashkirs. It is quite probable, as the Bashkirs when meeting Greeks could introduce themselves with pride as irat ‘real men’, in their attempt to translate it to Greek translated only the second part - at (horse in Türkic) - gippei. So could appear the word Argrippei.

In this message there are words pontik and askhi, which can be etymologized as pontik - bun-tek - bunlyk, where Old Türkic word bun is ‘soup, broth’, and pontik means ingredients for soup; and as askhi-asgy, i.e. suitable for food (as-ash ‘food’). The Türks today are in fact making from the askhi dried pulp a pastille.

The etymology of the Scythian word Kaukas (Caucasus) is interesting. The first part - kau - in Türkic means ‘gray-yellow-white’, it is used in ethnonym kyuchak~kyfchak~kypchak ~kyu~kiji etc.; kyu swan ‘swan’. The fact that in the word Caucasus kau-kyu expresses the meaning of ‘whiteness’ is proved by another Scythian name of Caucasus - Kroukas. Pliny Segund (1 c. AD) writes that Scythians call the Caucasian mountains by the name Kroukas, i.e. ‘white from snows’ [Latyshev V.V., 1896, Vol. 1, Issue. 2, 185]. In Türkic kyrau is ‘frost, frozen dew, snow’. The second part of words Caucas and Kroukas is -kas, it means ‘rock, rocky mountain’. Compare: in the Altai language kaskak ‘steep slope’, common Altaic kad~kaz ‘bluff, cliff’.

An interesting Scytho-Türkish material is present in the Scythian mythological words.

Gestia - the Goddess of the home hearth - in Scythian is Tabiti, apparently, from word tabu ‘find, swindle’.

Zeus - the Supreme God, king and father of the gods and people - in Scythian is Papei, in Türkic babai ‘primogenitor’.

Geia - impersonation of the Earth, she gave birth to Uranium (sky), Mountains, Pont (Sea); Geia in Scythian - Api, in Türkic Ebi ‘primogenitor mother’ [Zakiev M.Z., 1986, 27].

The Scytho-Türkic etymologies given above show that among Scythians, certainly, were Türkic tribes. Therefore the opinion codified in the (Russian - Translator’s note) official historical science that there is only one Scythian language, that it is solely of the Iranian group, that allegedly the first Türks came to Europe only in the 4 c. AD under an ethnonym of Huns, that there was Türkization of Volga and Urals population that began only in the 4th or 7th century AD - all this, naturally, does not correspond to the reality.

§ 5. A general view of the historians on ancient Türks. In the postulates of the (Russian - Translator’s note) official historical science, the Türkic tribes are considered rather young, diverging only 6-8 thousand years ago from the Türkic -Mongolian genus. And in the world historical science they find a place only from the 4-3 centuries BC, as Huns of Central Asia. In this sad state of affairs are guilty first of all the Türkologists, who until today have no scientific forces for the detailed study of the ancient Türks. Even the not too wealthy data available on Huns is found not by the Türkologists [Gumilev L.P., 1960], and therefore it is no wonder that the Mongolian scientists have begun to identify Huns with Mongolian tribes [Sukhbaatar G., 1976].

In the 19-century scientists found that the languages of the American Indians have many lexical units with the semantic system reminiscent of  Türkic words. In the 20 c. these similarities were established for many parameters, and the scientists made a conclusion that in the languages of American Indians the traces of the Türkic languages were preserved very clearly [Zakiev M.Z., 1977, 32-35]. If to note that these Indians came from Asia to America 20- 30 thousand years ago and had no links with Türks any more, the presence of the traces of the formed Türkic language in the Indian languages, left by the Türks 20-30 thousand of years ago, shall be recognized.

The bright and uncontestable traces of Türkic language are preserved in the cuneiform texts of Sumerians, who lived in the Mesopotamia between Euphrates and Tigris 6 thousand years ago [Suleimenov O., 1975, 192-291; Zakiev M.Z., 1977, 36]. Zaki Validi Togan in his works, written in 20-es of the 20 c., was the first in Türkology to state an opinion that bright traces of Türks were kept in the languages of American Indians, Sumerians, and Elamites [Validi Z., 1981, 10-17].

Per the Assyrian and other Eastern ancient written sources the name Udy (Kuty) is traced from a deep antiquity, namely from the 3-rd millennium BC, they can be connected with Caspian Udy, later Udyns, Bodins, Budins [Yelnitskiy L.A., 1977, 4]. We believe that Udy is later Uzy (Türks), more so because the sounds d-z in various Türkic dialects easily replace each other.

The Indian and Chinese written sources of the turn between 2-nd and 1-st millenniums BC give the tribal names of the Eastern Asian nomads: Dai, Se (Ti), and Unu etc. Later they can be found among Cimmerians and Scythians, and some of them as Sai, Dai, Huns, Unns, are recorded in the most Western part of Eurasia, down to borders of Northern Italy [Yelnitskiy L.A., 1977, 4]. So and Huns are famed Türkic tribes. Consequently, long before our era the Türks lived in both Europe and Asia, and they, naturally, were both among Cimmerians, and among Scythians-Sarmatians.

There is a justified opinion of the scientists that Etruscans who lived in the 1-st millennium BC in the North Western part of Apennine peninsula and who created an advanced Pre-Roman civilization were also Türkic in their origin. The genetic ancestry of Etruscan language in the (Russian - Translator’s note) official historical science has not been established yet, but there are detailed studies, including by a Türkish scientist - a daughter of Sadri Maksudi Adilya Aida, proving a Türkic character of Etruscan inscriptions [Adilya Aida, 1992, 390].

Thus, Türks formed 20-30 thousand years ago and lived in different regions of Eurasia under various ethnonyms. Ethnonym Türk by itself is known in history only from the 5-8 c. AD, prior to that it was an ordinary cognomen alongside with other Türkic ethnonyms. Scientists begun to apply it as a common name to designate all Türkic peoples only since the 19-20 centuries.

The historians living in time much closer to Scythians and Sarmatians quite often identified them with Türkic tribes. At the same time in no case they identified Scythians and Sarmatians with Iranian-lingual tribes. So, Philostogori (4 c. AD) has noted, that ‘these Unns are probably those people, who ancients called Nevrs’, i.e. Scythians [Latyshev V.V., 1900, 741].

Theophan the Byzantian (5 c.) renders Huns as Scythians. He writes: ‘Meanwhile Scyth Attila, son of Omnudiy, brave and proud man, removed his senior brother Vdela, assumed sole authority over Scythians, which also are named Unns, and attacked Thracia’ [Theophan the Byzantian, 1884, 81]. On the other side, he depicts Türks as Massagets: ‘East from Tanaid live Türks, in antiquity called Massagets. Persians in their language call them Kermikhions’ [Byzantian Historians. SPb., 1861, 492]. In this record of Theophan deserves an attention the fact that he knew well both Massagets (one of the Scythian tribes), and Persians. If Scythians-Massagets spoke Persian, he would inevitably note this detail. But Theophan identifies Massagets with Türks, not the Persians.

In the second half of the 5 c. Zosim expressed some confidence that Unns are Royal Scythians [Latyshev V.V., 1890, 800].

In the 6 c. Menandr Byzantian writes, ‘Türks, in antiquity called Sakas, sent to Justinian an embassy with peace offers’ [Byzantian Historians. SPb., 1861, 375], and about Scythian language he says ‘Türkic barbarous language’ [Ibis, 376]. In other place Menandr Byzantian writes: ‘...So all the Scythians from the tribes of the so-called Türks gathered up to a hundred six men’ [Ibis, 417].

Procopii Caesarian (6 c.) one of Scythian tribes - Amazons - identifies with Huns and Sabirs [Procopii Caesarian, 1950, 381]. Also he under Cimmerians means Türks-Huns, Utigurs, Kutrigurs ‘This swamp flows into Euxine Pont. The peoples, who live there, in antiquity were called Cimmerians, now they are called Utigurs’ [Procopii Caesarian, 1950, 384-385].

Agathii (6 c.) also calls Huns of Azov Sea as Scythians [Agathii, 1953, 148].

Theophilact Simocatta (7 c.) also marks that eastern Scythians usually are called Türks: ‘Expelled from the empire, he (Khosrov) left Ktesifon and, crossing river Tigris, hesitated, not knowing what to do, since some advised him to go to Eastern Scythians, which we habitually call Türks, others advised to go to Caucasus or Atropine mountains and to be saving his life there’ [Simocatta Th., 1957, 106].

Theophan Confessor (8 c.) under the name Khazars also means Scythians: ‘this year Basileus Leo married his son Constantine to the daughter of Khagan, master of Scythians, having converted her to Christianity and re-naming her Irena’ (before baptism her name was Chichak) [Chichurov I.S., 1980, 68].

The message in the ‘Rus Primary Chronicle’ (12 c.) also deserves an attention, that Scythians, Khazars and Bolgars are the same people: ‘When the Slavs, as we already spoke, lived in Danube area, came from Scythians, i.e. Khazars, so-called Bolgars and stayed on Danube’ [Rus Primary Chronicle, 28].

We have seen above that in the initial Russian history the Scythians and Sarmatians were considered to be Türks, for example, A.Lyzlov, V.N.Tatischev etc. This view had at first the Western historians also. So, the English historian of the 19 c. V.Mitford in the ‘Histories of Greece’ writes: ‘There are places in the world where inhabitants differ strongly from other people in customs and lifestyle. Among them it is worth to note those called Scythians by the Greeks, and by the contemporaries - Tatars’ [Mitford V., 1838, 419]. Here it is necessary to note that in the West then under the name Tatars were understood almost all Eastern peoples, but the Moslem Türks were nevertheless considered as real Tatars.

In the middle of the 19 c. the Russian historians and geographers were convinced that Scythians were Türkic speaking. So, R. Latama wrote in 1854 in the Bulletin of Russian geographical society: ‘The Türkic origin of the Scythians now days... does not require any special proofs’ [Latama R., 1854, 45].

Thus, there were scientists, who considered Scythians as solely Türkic speaking, i.e. they created Scytho-Türkic theory, whereas others adhered to the Scytho-Iranian theory.

In our opinion, neither is adequate. Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, certainly, were polyethnical, among them were ancestors of those peoples, who occupy now the so-called ancient Scythian territory - Eastern Europe, Siberia (except for Far East), Kazakhstan, Central Asia, Middle and Near East. Among all peoples of this extensive region the Türks have a significant place. This important factor, and that Scythian ethnological, mythological and linguistic traces were mostly preserved among Türkic peoples, incontestably proves that among ancient Cimmerians, Scythians and Sarmatians were many more Türks than ancestors of the Slavs, Finno-Ugrians, and even Iranian-lingual Ossetians (if the last belonged to Scythians at all)....MORE TO READ








PARTHiANS-SACAE-MASSAGATAE-DAHAE-CUMANOS-TARTAROS-KiPZACOS = TURKS



ETHNOGRAPHICAL - TURANIAN CHARACTER 
OF THE PARTHIAN PEOPLE

If we ask what the ancient writers have left on record with respect to the Parthian nationality, we shall find, in the first place a general consensus that they were Scyths.

"The Parthians" says Justin, in his "Epitome of Trogus Pompeius" "were a race of Scyths, who at a remote date separated themselves from the rest of the nation, and occupied the southern portion of the Chorasmian desert, whence they gradually made themselves masters of the mountain region adjoining it.""

Strabo adds to this that the particular Scyhtic tribe whereot they belonged was that of the Dahae; that their own proper and original name was Parni or Aparni; and that they had migrated at a remote period from the country to the north of the Palus Maeotis (Sea of Azov) , where they left the great mass of their fellowtribesmen.

Some time after this the theory was started that they were Scyths whom Sesostris , on his return from his supposes Scyhtian expedition, brought into asia and settled in the mountain tract sout-east of the Caspian.

We cannot put much faith in the details of any of these various statements, since in the first place, they are contradictory, and in the second they are most of them highly improbable. Sesostris, for instance, if there wver was such a king no more made an expedition into Scythia than into Lapland or Kamskatka. No Egyptian monarch ever penetrated further north than the mountain chains of Taurus and Niphates.

Arrian's story is a mere variant of the tale told to Herodotus and Diodorus, and believed by them of the planting of Scyhtian colonists in Colchis by the hypothetical Sesostris; and it is even more improbable since it makes the returning conqueror depart from his natural course and go a thousand miles out of his way, to plant for no purpose a colony in a region which he was never likely to visit again.

Strabo's migration tale is less incredible, since the tribes to the north of the Euxine and Caspian lived in a constant state of unrest and migratory movements on their part, far exceeding the supposed Parthian movement in the distance traversed, are among the most certain facts of ancient history.

But it is diffucult to see what trustworthy authority Strabo could even suppose that he had for his assertions, since the migration of which he speaks must have taken place at least six hundred years before his own time, and migratory races rarely retain any tradition of their origin for so much as a century. Strabo , moreover admits it to be doubtful whether there ever were any Dahae among the Scyths of the Maeotis , and thus seems to cut the ground from under his own feet.
The utmost that can be safely gathered from these numerous and discrepant notices is the conculion that the Parthians were felt by the Greeks and Romans who first came into contact with them to be an alien nation, intruded among the Arian races of these parts, having their congeners in the great steppe country which lay north of the Black Sea, the Caucasus, the Caspian and the Oxus river.

These nations wre nomadic, uncivilises, coarse, not to any brutal, in their habits; of a type very much inferior to that of the races which inhabited the more southern regions, felt by them to be barbarians, and feared as a continual menace to their prosperity and civilisation.

There is always an underlying idea of dispraise and disparagement whenever a Greek or a Roman calls any race , or people, or custom "Scythic" - the term connotes rudenss, grossness, absence of culture and refinement - it is not perhaps strictly ethnic, since it designates a life rather than a descent, habits rather than blood - but it points to such a life and such habits as have from the remotest antiquity prevailed, and as still prevail, in the vast plain country which extend from the Caucasus, the Caspian and the mountain chains of the Central Asian regions to the shores of the great Arctic Sea.

It is certain that the inhabitants of this tract have belonged , from a remote antiquity, to the ethnic family generally known as Turanian.

In the south they are of the Tatar* or Turkish type; in the north of the Finnish or Samoeidic.
Their language is agglutinate and wanting in inflections; their physique is weak, languid, anaemic, unmuccular ; they have large fleshy bodies, loose joints, soft swollen bellies, and scanthy hair. They live chiefly on horseback or in wagons. Still as enemies, they are far from contemptible. Admirable horseman, often skilled archers, accustomed to a severe climate and to exposure in all weathers; they have proved formidable foes to many warlike nations, and still give serious trouble to their Russian masters.

The Scythian character of the Parthians , vouched for on all hands, and their derivation from Upper Asia, or the regions beyond the Oxus, furnish a strong presumption of their belonging to the Turanian family of nations.

This presumption is strengthened by the little that we know of their language. Their names, when not distinctly Persian, which they would often naturally be from conscious and intentional imitation, are decidedly non-Arian and have certain Turanian characteristics.
(page 32-from the book)

PARTHIA
GEORGE RAWLINSON 
LATE CAMDEN PROF.OF ANCIENT HISTORY IN THE UNİ.OF OXFORD

* Tatars are Turkish people.















SO...WiTHOUT THE TURKS, THERE iS NO HiSTORY