Turkish: Kuman / plural Kumanlar
Hungarian language: Kun / plural Kunok
Latin language: Pallidi, Comani, Cuni ,
Romanian language: Cuman / plural Cumani ,
were a Turkish nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman-Kipchak confederation.
After the Mongol invasion (1237), many sought asylum in Hungary and, subsequently, Bulgaria. The Cumans had also settled in Hungary and Bulgaria before the Mongol invasion. Related to the Pecheneg Turks.
The Cumans also had a pre-eminent role in the Fourth Crusade and in the creation of the Second Bulgarian Empire. Cuman and Kipchak Turkish tribes joined politically to create the Cuman-Kipchak confederation.
The Cumans' name in Russian and German means "yellow", in reference to the color of the Cumans' hair. The Ukrainian word Polovtsy means "blond" / "pale yellow", since the old Ukrainian word polovo means "straw". Kuman (quba/quw) means "pale yellow" / "yellowish grey" / "pale/sallow, cream coloured" in Turkish. Cuman-Kipchak Turks are blond with blue eyes. Even in Chinese sources were reported to have blond hair, fair skin and blue eyes.
The Cuman language is the best-known of the early Turkic languages. The Codex Cumanicus was a linguistic manual which was written to help Catholic missionaries communicate with the Cuman people. Codex Cumanicus written by Italian merchants and German missionaries between 1294 and 1356.
Cuman Turkish :
Bizim atamız kim-szing kökte
Szentlenszing szening ading
Düs-szün szening könglügüng
Necsik-kim dzserde alaj kökte
Bizing ekmegimizni ber bizge büt-bütün künde
Ilt bizing minimizni
Necsik-kim biz ijermiz bizge ötrü kelgenge
Iltme bizni ol dzsamanga
Kutkar bizni ol dzsamannan
Szen barszing bu kücsli bu csin ijgi Tengri, amen.
Bizim atamız ki sensin gökte
Şenlensin senin adın
Hoş olsun senin gönlün
Nasıl ki yerde ve tüm gökte
Bizim ekmeğimizi ver bize bütün günde
İlet bizim aklımızı
Nasıl ki biz boyun eğeriz bize emir gelince
İletme bizi her (tüm) kötülüğe
Kurtar bizi her kötülükten
Sen varsın bu güçte bu yücelikte Tanrım, amin.
Our father who is in the sky
May your name be glorified
May your desire be done
On the ground and in the sky
Give us our bread in all days
Deliver our mind
When you give the command we will bow down
Do not deliver us to evil
Save us from all harm
You exist in this strength and highness my God, amen.
a page of Codex Cumanicus
KUMAN TÜRK TAŞNİNELER - UKRAYNA DA BULUNMUŞ
Neues Museum, Berlin'de
Cuman Turks Statues (Taşnine / Stonegrandmother)
from Ukraine in Neues Museum, Berlin
Cuman Turks burial mound (Kurgan in Turkish / Tumuli in English)
in Hungary with Taşbaba (Stonefather/Kamennaya)
In Ukraine Cuman-Kipchak Turkish Taşbaba / Taşnine
Scythian Taşbaba (Stonefather/Kamennaya)
from Oblast Doneck/Ukraine