"In agreement with the results from the current study, eastern Scythian lineages were already shown to have a more widespread distribution among the contemporary populations and intriguingly almost exclusively among the Turkic-speaking populations, who are also spread over a substantial part of the Eurasian geography. It is also noteworthy that a relatively high level of matching was observed in both the maternal and paternal lineages of the two ancient Scythians from Ak-Alakha-1 site and contemporary populations from Anatolia.
This is despite the fact that the Ychromosomal haplogroup N and mtDNA haplogroup C are today observed at their highest frequencies in both contemporary and ancient east Eurasian populations. As in the case of the Pazyryk culture, there is ample evidence for genetic admixture of the eastern and western paternal and maternal lineages in the contemporary populations from Turkey along with an overall population continuity of the original Anatolian genetic stock...
In other words, there is an apparent population continuity from the Scythians to the Xiongnu and then onto the Turkic people, possibly because the former two already bore proto-Turkic elements. Following the collapse of the Pazyryk culture, not all members of the community disappeared, but some seemingly formed the basis of a genetic continuity with the contemporary Altaians and other nearby populations in terms of both the paternal and maternal lineages...
Instead of simply disappearing upon the collapse of the Scythian culture, “the animal style” flourished over an even larger geographical domain, such as through the ethnic traditions of various Turkic peoples. Among the numerous examples are the re-appearance of the ever-popular Scythian symbolism attached with deer and deer antlers in the insignia of the KokTurk royal family, as well as ornamental motifs on numerous other artifacts from the associated period."
Matrilineal and Patrilineal Genetic Continuity of Two Iron Age Individuals from a Pazyryk Culture Burial
Dmitrii G. Tikhonov (1), Cemal Gurkan (2, 3), Gokce Y. A. Peler (4) and Victor M. Dyakonov (5)
In this study, geographic and linguistic distributions of contemporary and ancient matches with the paternal and maternal lineages of two individuals exhumed from the exemplary Pazyryk culture burial site of AkAlakha-1 mound 1 were investigated. Using the shared paternal and maternal haplotypes observed in both ancient individuals, extensive database and literature searches were conducted revealing numerous full matches among contemporary Eurasians, majority of whom speak Altaic Languages. Despite the current focus on the two Pazyryk individuals, a rare glimpse into the ancient migrations was gained through the discovery of paternal and maternal haplotype matches across an immense geography that spans from Yakutia to Turkey. In addition to a vast array of archaeological findings in such Scythian “frozen graves” across Central Asia, accumulating archaeogenetic data are expected to shed light on the anthropology of these otherwise mysterious people.
1) Scientific Research Institute of Health, North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk, Sakha Republic, Russian Federation
2) Turkish Cypriot DNA Laboratory, Committee on Missing Persons in Cyprus Turkish Cypriot Member Office, Nicosia (North Cyprus), Turkey
3) Dr. Fazil Kucuk Faculty of Medicine, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, (North Cyprus), Turkey
4) Department of Contemporary Turkic Languages and Literatures, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey
5) Archaeology Department, Institute for Humanitarian Research and Problems of Indigenous People of the North, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Yakutsk, Sakha Republic, Russian Federation
KEYWORDS Ak-Alakha. Ancient DNA. Scythian. Saka. Turkic
"Contemporary populations linked to western Iron Age steppe people can be found among diverse ethnic groups in the Caucasus, Russia and Central Asia (spread across many Iranian and other Indo-European speaking groups), whereas populations with genetic similarities to eastern Scythian groups are found almost exclusively among Turkic language speakers."
Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe
Martina Unterländer, Friso Palstra, Iosif Lazaridis, Aleksandr Pilipenko, Zuzana Hofmanová, Melanie Groß, Christian Sell, Jens Blöcher, Karola Kirsanow, Nadin Rohland, Benjamin Rieger, Elke Kaiser, Wolfram Schier, Dimitri Pozdniakov, Aleksandr Khokhlov, Myriam Georges, Sandra Wilde, Adam Powell, Evelyne Heyer, Mathias Currat, David Reich, Zainolla Samashev, Hermann Parzinger, Vyacheslav I. Molodin & Joachim Burger
* What does this mean? ; "...the expansion of Turkic languages was thought to be much more recent—that is, sixth century CE onwards..." ?! (from the article)
But you are mistaken!...
Turkish language goes far back as the Sumerians, which also means that Turkish speaking groups were in Mesopotamia at that time! So it was not expanded whitin the 6th c AD, not recently thus, but four thousand years earlier. That's the mistake you all make; Thinking that Turks are just limited only with the Gokturks, is just absurd!
Cynical but True, that's how the scholars response!:
"When a scholar met a Scythian at a bazaar, he greeted him “I've heard that Scythians are Iranians”.
The Scythian replies, “Menim dil Türkche” (I talk Türkic), to which the scholar responds,
“You see, my trusted colleague is right, you do speak Iranian!”."
Ethnic affiliation of the Scytho-Sarmatians
Proceedings of Russian DNA-genealogy Academy, Aug. 2012, Vol. 5, No 8, pp. 979-1012, ISSN 1942-7484 (in Russian)
First, Scythians are Turkish speaking Turkish tribe, which is today also the ancestor of all Turkish people, from east to west, plus the ancestors of Magyars, Huns (the East Huns-Xiongnu and the West Huns-Attila are kinsman), some European tribes as "Saken (or Saxon)", Picts, Osetians, Ukraine. etc. Scythians did not dissepear, they just mingled with others, and that's why the DNA comes up with many nations. But at the begining Scythians (Sacae) are Turks, and Turk is the surname of the ethnic, Scythians is just the name, like Oghuz, Seljuk, Artuqid or Kuman, Khazar, etc. Dr.Ida Bobula wrote in Origin of the Hungarian People; "All Turkish peoples, Uighurs, Kök-Turks, Ottoman Turks, belong to that central group of Eurasian humanity, which we are calling Scythian"...(link)
Second is the "Cultural & Social DNA", who are the descendants of the Scythians which continued the same cultural, art, social traditions? Like drinking mare's milk koumiss (kımız) or stonestatues Balbal or Tashbaba (Stonefather-Taşbaba), which we see also among Kökturks and Kuman-Kipchak Turks. Or riding horse and using the bow-arrow as "Partian-Shot", among Huns, White-Huns (Hephthalites-Abdals), Seljuks (an Oghuz tribe like Ottomans=Atman), Kipchaks and even in the Ottoman period! Not a single tribe of the so-called "Indo-European/Iranian" tribes has used the "Parthian-shot" or "mare's milk"! The continuity of the cultur and art to be seen among Turks, is important to consider...
Third one is the language, Issyk inscription is Turkish to be read. There was also an other little inscription which was read as Ak-Maral (White Deer). The names are Turkish to. There is a joke about it:
When a scholar met a Scythian at a bazaar, he greeted him “I've heard that Scythians are Iranians”. The Scythian replies, “Menim dil Türkche” (I talk Türkic), to which the scholar responds, “You see, my trusted colleague is right, you do speak Iranian!”.
Even the name of the Scythian King is Turkish of etymology; ATAİL
This means Scythians spoke Turkish, so they were Turks, all Turkish people, not just who lives in Turkiye, because Turkiye has many Turkish tribes which are Turks; like Avars, Huns, Khazars, Pechenegs (one of the Oghuz tribe), Oghuz groups (Seljuks of Kınık tribe, Ottoman of Kayı tribe, or look for more Oghuz (the meaning of Oğuz is Tribes) tribes with different names in "Oghuz Turks" on the net) , Cuman-Kipchaks, Bulgar-Turks, Nogay-Turks, etc. that's why we named the land after our surname: Turk. (and I do not accept the word Turkic! it means isshh = like, such as, similar)
And ask yourself to: "Why ise there Turkology (with the word Turk as in ethnic word)? To study the Turks of course... And why is there, instead of Frenchology, Britainology, İtalianology or Swedenology is there a Germanalogy or Celtology?..." The word German lives only in Almanya (Germany) and only they kept the ethnic name (if we can say so), but all others like Franks or Britains are of German/Celt/Scythian mixed people, but they don't have *-ology in academia as title with their ethnic name.
Most of the people and scholars starts the history of the Turks with the Köktürks/Gokturks, and according to you they don't have ancestors, is that possible? Of course not... Turks are not limited with the Gokturks (the real state name was actually "Turkish Khaganate"), these are just the Turks in Central Asia. There are many Turkish tribes with different names, some took their name from their leader - Atman > Ottoman, or Selçuk > Seljuk, which are both from Oghuz Turks - , and some was given - like Scythians (actually their name is Sak /Kas, but in Assyrian inscriptions is their name Ashguzai/Ishguzai > As+Guz > As and Ghuzz>Oguz, which As is also a tribe name from the Orkhun inscription, just like the name Tatar (thus, Tatar was not given to Mongolians, because it was already in the 7th c Ad in use as Turkish Tribe).
So the problem of many people and scholars is that they limited the Turks only with the Gokturks, that's just absurd. They didn't fall from the Sky... Plus, Gokturks with the name Turk (in Chinese Tu-kue) is written on the Orkhun inscriptions, but not for the first time, the first time is Turuki/Turuci in 14th-13th c BC. Or the name Guz/Oguz, like in Assyrian inscripitons was written also by Herodotus and Strabo as Ochus or Oxus, is the river Amu Darya today, where the Oghuz Turks lived even in the 5th BC... Did the Russians, British or Slavs have the nation name in BC times? No, they did not... Subar/Suvar/Sibir or Subari/Subartu/Subarians (3300 BC.) are also proto-Turks, which gave name to Siberia. (There are Turkish toponyms or hydronyms in Europe to if you are interested...)
And who says that the Turks are Asian?.. No my friend, Turks are just like the Europeans of Caucasian race. But some of them mixed with the Asian race, who settled in Central Asia, and there is no shame of it. Are the Europeans pure blood/genes German or Celtic tribe? Also a no... I do respect all kind of culture and nation, but I do not accept the ignorence against the history of all the Turkish people. Be careful, maybe you are mocking about your own ancestor, which you don't know. Because, Europe was settled by Turks with the names; Scythians/Sacae, Huns, Avars (which is also called as Abar, like in "Abaris the Hyperborean"), Bulgars, Khazars, Kipchak-Cumans, Pechenegs, etc... So, everyone need to refresh theirs knowledge...
Plus about the Vikings, actually their history begins in the 8th c Ad after the Hun-Turks. After the death of Attila (Atilla) the Huns spread all over the Europe, and some of them came to Scandinavia and settled there. There is not just a DNA result but also the traditions; eating horse meat, burying with horses in kurgans, hanging horse head on trees, etc. are Hun (and Scythian-Kökturk) Turk traditions and not Scandinavian! Of course the asimilation was strong. But at the end the European people have Turkish ancestory in his genes and veins, not just by Scyhtian Turks, but also by Hun, Bulgar (before the Slavs), Avar, Cuman-Kipchak, Pecheneg, Seljuk and even Ottoman Turks. For example, we see more Avar-Turks among Slavs, and Hun-Turks among German tribes with the 4th-8th century AD. Magyars (this is the ethnic name of them, not Hun) are our cousins. Hungarians are the only non-Indo-European-speaking nation in Central Europe and are more realated with Bashkir Turks and Cuman-Turks.
For more info look at this link (turkic world) many articles, books about everything...
With my best wishes...