25 Nisan 2014 Cuma




The Kassites of Babylonia, whose language was Akkadian (see Babylon). Many of their texts occur at Nipūr, and they erected boundary stones in the 12th and 11th centuries B.C., which give valuable historic notices. The later Kassites used the Semitic Babylonian language. They are the Kissaioi of Greek historians. [The Kassite name lists (see Proc. Bib. .Arch. Socy., Jany. 1881) as well as the Nipūr texts determine the language, and give us the names of some of their gods, including Kit (the sun), Vurus
(Ba’al), Khali (Gula), Iskhara (Istar), Sumu (apparently Rimmon), and others.—ED.]



The nationality of the kings of the first dynasty is disputed. Some of their names are Semitic and Babylonian, as represented by the later scribes : others are not, and appear to be Akkadian. It is however certain that they were all of one family. Berosus calls them Medes. Dr Hommel has endeavoured to prove them Arabs. It remains certain that, in their time, the population was mixed, and some spoke Akkadian others Semitic Babylonian. 

The former (see Akad) seem to have been the ruling, the latter the commercial class. The chronicles of the dynasty are in Akkadian ; but the letters and commercial laws of Hammurābi, the famous sixth king of this dynasty, are mainly in Semitic dialect, though Akkadian texts also bear his name. He was the first independent king of Babylon (about 2139 to 2094 B.C.), and shook off the suzerainty of Elam in his 30th year.

His empire extended from Anzan in Elam (or W. Persia) to the Mediterranean, and included the province of Assyria, Nineveh being noticed on his great stela of laws found at Susa (see Assyria). The second dynasty was apparently less powerful. The names of its kings are non-Semitic. 

The third dynasty (or the Kassite) was also at first non-Semitic (the Kassite language being an Akkadian dialect) : its best known kings are Kurigalzu I (about 1470), his son Burnaburias (1440), and grandson Kurigalzu II (about 1400 B.C.). The latter was set on the throne by his grandfather (on the mother’s side) Assur-Yuballiḍ king of Assyria ; and from this time down to 1012 B.C. the Assyrians constantly strove to dispossess the Kassites, and established Semitic kings in Babylon, as we see from the names in the royal lists. Even as late however as Melisikhu (1043-1028 B.C.) Kassite names recur ; and the final Semitic triumph, in gaining supreme power over the Turanians, was due to Assyrian efforts....



The old Turanian race of Babylonia, named from the region Akad or Ak-kad (rendered tillu, “ high,” in Assyrian), which is defined as represented by Ararat and other mountains. They were “ highlanders ” from Armenia or Kurdistan, to the N.E. of Babylon. who seem to have dispossessed an older “ dark race ” (see Adam), of inferior civilisation, whom they perhaps did not drive out, but governed systematically and well. [They seem to be the race called in the syllabaries lu-gud (“ strong folk ”), and be-ut (“ bright race ”) rendered sarcu, “ ruler,” in the Assyrian.—ED.]

They introduced a written character ; encouraged arts and literature :and (Turanian like), developed a great mythology and animistic cult. [There is no doubt that their language is Turanian, apparently nearest to Turkish. See Journal Rl. Asiatic Soc., October 1893.—ED.]

The Akkadian, Sumerian (see Sumer), and Kassite races seem to have been worn out in their struggle with the Semitic race. [The oldest texts of Babylonia are Akkadian. The Semitic people appear after the foundation of Babylon—about 2250 B.C.—first as merchants and traders. In the time of Hammurābi (2139-2094 B.C.), both languages appear in the inscriptions, as also in those of the Kassite kings of Babylon, from 1589 to 1300 B.C.—ED.] 

The capital of Sargina (who was thought by Babylonians, about 550 B.C., to have lived about 3800 B.C.), was at Agade (see Agadhe). Early Akkadian texts come from Tell Loḥ , and Nippur further south ; from Kutha, &c. Nippur, in the marshes 80 miles S.E. of Babylon (Calneh of Gen. x, 10, according to the Jews), was sacred to Mul-lil (“ the ghost lord”), an early Ba’al of the Akkado-Sumerians. The chief city of the old Gilgamas legend, however, is Uruki or Erech, near the mouth of the Euphrates. The Akkadian magic literature (translated by the Assyrian scribes of Nineveh in 7th century B.C.), is full of legends and charms, of demons and vampires, enemies or agents of the gods.



The ancient non-Semitic rulers of Babylonia, the Kassites of the 12th century B.C., and even later Assyrians, called themselves “ King of Akkad and Sumer ” (see Akad). [These words appear to be purely geographical, meaning only “ highland and lowland ”—the Akkadian su meaning “ water ” or “ stream,” and mir probably “ valley.” Su-mir was “ the river valley ” of Mesopotamia. The word is often used incorrectly as a racial name.—ED.]



Hebrew : “ high land.” The plateau of W. Persia, east of the Tigris. [The Akkadian name is Si-nim, “ high region,” Baby- Ionian ’Elamu. See Isaiah xlix, 12.—ED.]



See Ekbātana, and Kuras. The Medes are noticed N. of Assyria, by Shalmaneser Il, as early as 840 B.C. (see Gen. x, 2 : Isa. xiii, 17). We know little of them, except that Medic names are Aryan, as are Medic words such as Bag “ god,” and Spaka “ bitch.” They are said to have been very luxurious, and to have painted their faces. They already held the lands S.W. of the Kaspian in the reign of Tiglath Pileser II of Assyria, about 735 B.C.

In this region however Darius I set up his Behistun text in three languages, Persian, Semitic, and Turanian. Hence Dr Oppert supposes the “ Proto-Medes ” to have been a Turanian race, akin to the old population of Susa further south, and to the Akkadians. They never appear to have formed any empire, or to have ruled outside Media ; for Cyrus was a Persian.



This name applies in the Bible both to the race of Babylonia and Armenia (Gen. ii, 13; x, 7), of which Nimrod was the hero ; and also to Upper Egypt or Aithiopia. [It is usually rendered “ dark,” as a Semitic word ; but on Babylonian tablets Kus is Kappadokia, and the term may be only the Akkadian Kus, for “ sunset ” and the “ west,” which would apply equally to Asia Minor and to Egypt.—ED.] The Kosis of N. India (see Kosa) may have been of this “ Cushite ” stock from Babylonia, which appears to answer historically to the Akkadians (see Akad). 

We are content to see that scholars are coming round to the opinions which forced themselves on us more than 25 years ago, when studying Aryan and Turanian questions connected with India. The language of the Kassites, Kosseans, or Kissaians (see Kassites), was Turanian.  [This name however seems to be distinct, being always spelt Ḳ assu in Semitic texts.—ED.]



....The original civilising race came apparently from Asia, before the age of the Pyramids.....(the carved slates, supposed to be as old as the 1st dynasty, represent hunting scenes, and wars with negroes ; and the writer regards them as showing invaders from Asia Minor; for they are armed with the double axe of Karians and Kretans, found also on Hittite monuments, and at Behistun as well as in Etruria as used by Turanians....)

....The people of Lukopolis (wolf town) propitiated the wolf that tore their sheep; other shepherds adored the bull and the ram.....

....5th dynasty , at Memphis (or at Elephanta) say 3950 to 3700 BC. The Turin copy of the Ritual belonged to this age, with various proverbial treatises. The skulls are long, like those of modern Egyptian peasants, whereas those of the first four dynasties are round, suggesting a Turanian race.....

....14th dynasty at Xois (Sakha) :say 2400 to 2000 BC. The Turanian fondness for confederacies of tribes instead of kingdoms (seen also among Hittites and Etruskans).....

....The Hyksos called themselves Min , coming from a country east of Syria and near Assyria. They appear therefore to have been Minni, or Minyas from near Lake Van: and the Minyans of this region (Matiene or Mitanni) in the 15th century BC. spoke a Turanian language, being apparently of the same stock with the Kassites of Babylon and the Hittites, which agrees with the worship of Sutekh. (Between the 12th and 18th dynasties also, foreign pottery like that found in Palestine, Kappadokia and on the shores of the Eagean Sea, appears in Egypt and is marked with emblems of the "Asianic syllabary" which was used by Hittites, Karians, Kretans and Kuprians......

...Thus for three generations, Semitic and Turanian influence began to reassert itself in Egypt....

...The Kassites were then ruling in Babylon and the whole Turanian power, from Asia Minor and Syria to Mesopotamia.....

....Kadesh and Karkemish are named with the Masu (Mysians) , Pidasa (Pedasos) Leka (Lycians or Ligyes) Dardani (Dardanos) and others. (The Kassites were then ruling in Babylon, and the whole Turanian power, from Asia Minor and Syria to Mesopotamia- perhaps aided by Aryans (see Rameses III,below)- was leagued against Egypt-ED)....

....Rameses II was a great builder, and constructed the Ramesseum at Thebes, and the beautiful rock temples of Abu Simbel. He completed the Hall of Columns at KArnak; and from its bas reliefs we learn much as to his conquest of Kadesh and other cities. He died in old age, and his mummu presents a very stiking countenance more Asiatic than Egyptian, with a powerful aquiline nose.....

.....(Among the names of tribes allied to the Libyans we find Akausha (supposed to be Achaeans) Tursba or Tulsha (people of Tros, Thrace or Tlos) Shartana (Sardians) and others "of the lands of the sea"....


Anahtar kelime : turanian , turanians