Scythian/Saka Tashbaba and Turkish Tashbaba
Proceedings of the scientific conference "State in Kyrgyzstan and Central Asia: History and Prospects" BISHKEK, 12 - 13 May 2003 TM Ryskulov (google translate from Russian)
Saki heritage to date captivates, draws the eyes. The scientists of different nations are trying to make their own ethnic ancestors. In this case the arguments presented by them do not look quite convincing. Consider them. Some German researchers believed their ancestors saks on the sole ground that the ethnonym Sak tune with the tribal name of the German tribe Saxon, Saxony, without giving any other arguments.
But we should recognize that in this way were not the only ones. Posted temptation, and a prominent researcher of the history of Saka as VV Grigoriev. In linguistic analysis named Saka Queen Zarina he came to the following conclusion: "The name of this - clearly Slavic, derived from the word dawn" [Grigoriev, 1998, p. 66].
It is obvious that the lack of evidence provides an important opportunity to build a large number of hypotheses. As a result, there is now a much larger perspective on the origin of the Scythians, Saks, than in the time of Herodotus. Who are they really? In what language they spoke? Could any people or nation, yet they considered their ancestors? Is it possible? The judgments in this regard are sometimes quite categorical: "No modern nation can consider itself a direct descendant of the Scythians" [Gulyaev, 2001, p. 47].
It should be noted that in the Soviet and post-Soviet historiography rather consistently presents the thesis of the Iranian language of Saks, Saks conclusion suggests itself - is the eastern Iranians. Gradually, this idea became an axiom. But on closer acquaintance with the history and culture of the Saka tribes, it is possible to agree with the opinion of AP Smirnova that "frankly, some controversial, discussion continues to be the main issues the history of the Scythians" [Smirnov, 1966, p. 12].
One of the most controversial issues is the language belonging Saka tribes. The solution to this problem would give clues to the history of the origin of the Saks. After all, the power of language in the long run stronger, - says Professor MV Rat - than any power that is available to people. And if they were Türkic, which speaks in favor of this theory.
In the VIII-VII centuries. BC. Saks experienced a heroic period, the heroic period is usually characterized by the clash of swords and arrows singing. Batyr, a hero who did not have at home is nothing but weapons, sword fighting companion - a horse, with their help he could get all the riches of the world. Moving from Central (Central) Asia Saka army captured the northern Black Sea region. Then they moved to the south, where there were large cities, which means objects for plunder. They passed through the North Caucasus. Herodotus quite accurately defines the path of movement of the Scythians, who, to his knowledge, were having the right Caucasus Range.
It is necessary to immediately make a reservation, that this well-trodden path Sakas then be reused Turkic peoples during their subsequent invasions of Asia Minor. Movement of the Iranian armies or tribes on the route hardly noticed historiography. So with good reason it can be considered military-Turkish road. So, after going through the Caucasus, the Scythians invaded Asia Minor. "The impression made by them on the then civilized world, - said AP Smirnov - was enormous Give a word of the Bible in the book.." The prophet "Jeremiah, who more than any other biblical writers prone to historicism, the Scythians are characterized as people who came from the north ..
As a people cruel and unforgiving Scythians movement caused such fear that no one thought to defend himself: "publish it in Judah, and proclaimed in Jerusalem ... run ... lion ascends from his thicket" elsewhere he writes: "Behold, I bring to you -. O house of Israel, a nation from afar, says the Lord, strong nation, an ancient nation, a nation whose language you do not know, and will not understand what he says, "[Smirnov, 1966, pp. 17-18].
it seems that it can be considered . first written fact confirms the Türkic-speaking of the Scythians proof of this: the house of Israel, for the Jews inhabiting it, but also for the "prophet" Jeremiah Iranian language - the language of neighbors, trade language in general for the Near East at that time it is quite familiar language Iranian-speaking. Medes, Persians. But the unknown language, incomprehensible to the inhabitants of Asia Minor, which was dominated by Semitic, Iranian, Aramaic, could be a hitherto unknown Turkic language Sakas of Central Asia.
Therefore, they did not understand. For Jeremiah, who more than any other biblical writers prone to historicism, would, if they were Iranian-speaking, indicate that they were from the tribe of the tree from which trace their genealogy of the Medes and Persians.
These acts Scythians described by Jeremiah refer to the VII century BC. e. And in the V century BC. e. versions of the origin of the Scythians and their names we get from the hands of the father of history - Herodotus. Herodotus gives us genealogical legend of the origin of the Scythian-Saka. Here it is: "The Scythians say that their people ... there was this: in their land ... was born the first man named Targitai ... And he had three sons ...:. Lipoksai, Arpoksai and younger Kolaksai With them out of heaven de fell Scythian ground gold items:. plow, yoke, ax and a bowl eldest of the brothers, moved closer, wanting to take them, but as he approached the gold ignited According to his removal came second, but gold has repeated the same thing ... but with the approach of the third brother. , the youngest, has stopped burning, and he took up the gold. The older brothers, realizing the significance of this miracle, Jr. passed all the kingdom "[Herodotus, 1999, p. 236].
In this passage, we recorded almost the only linguistic data Scythian-Saka language, and therefore it is impossible to pass by this material. In linguistic analysis first name Saka kings must be borne in mind that these names have at least 2,500 years. In our opinion, the names are Turkic and easily translated into modern Kyrgyz language, which also is the most ancient and pure Turkic language. Therefore, probably, and the transfer is very easy and requires no special knowledge of ancient languages.
Name the first Targitai. The word "tar" in modern Kyrgyz language means "cramped, narrow", for example: Tarsuu - a narrow river, etc. "Tai" in the Turkic peoples - Shor, Altai, and in the Kyrgyz "Tayac - means" maternal uncle "Perhaps this name tells us that among the Saka tribes, as a result of spin-offs aside some independent tribe or. race, which was headed by brother sister queens and therefore in the legend in the name of the founder of a new kind of recorded word "tie" -?.. in general, maternal uncle, in the Turko-Mongolian history in the XIII century is a person named Targitai Kiriltuh.
At first glance at the names of the three sons Targitai, it turns out that they are composed of complex Turkish words. In all three names, there is a Turkic word "sai" meaning and now they have, "river valley", for example: Aksai - white river valley, Koksai - green river valley. A translation of the full names of the sons Targitai on modern Kyrgyz language is obtained as follows. The name of the second son - Arpaksaya translated as "river valley Barley" (Arpa - barley). And the name of the third completely sound in Kyrgyz: Kolaksai where "count" - the hand, "ak" - white, and again sai. By the way, according to legend, and he goes to his father's main yurt in the inheritance that corresponds to Turkic traditions of inheritance of power and property.
Also Herodotus is the name Kolaksai as VB revealed Kowalewski, occurs in the ancient poet Alcman when transferring breeds race horses: "Alcman poet (end of VII century BC.) Compares in his poems of Greek women with race horses - Venetic, kolaksayskimi and ibeninskimi ... under ibeninskimi horses to be understood. Celtic, but kolaksayskie - this is definitely a Scythian, and Alcman testimony coincides with the appearance of the Scythians in the international arena due to their Near Eastern campaigns "[Kovalevskaya, 1977, p. 68].
It should immediately be emphasized that the Saka kings who led the army during the invasion of Asia Minor, called Ishpaka (can Ishbakay - TR) and Partatua. And besides, as far as we know - at Saks was no tradition of naming a tribe by the name of the king. Therefore Kolaksai name may simply mean the geographic name of the place where they came from Saks. And the names of the older brothers also geographic place names of their former habitat. For two centuries, from VII to V cc. BC, the essence of the values forgotten and the place names have become a legend in their own names ancestors of the tribes. In this comparison we can draw a parallel with the medieval history of the Kyrgyz people, when the name of a place, or an animal, transformed in their own names, or the name became kind.
At this he drew the attention of the famous Kyrgyz ethnographer SA Attokurov, noting that "in many cases Batyr birth name given by name the area" [Attotkurov, 1994, p. 97]. But more important to note that from the poet Alcman, who lived at the beginning of VII century. BC and to Herodotus, who lived in the V century. BC Turkic name Kolaksai remains unchanged - or the name of his son Targitai, or as an ethnonym of one of the Saka tribes. It is also learned to pay attention to a remarkable fact, as "safety," "immutability" of certain ethnonyms in the time domain in ancient and medieval authors of both the West and the East.
Thus, the ancient authors believed that "the Sakas and Scythians - synonyms Herodotus (VII, 64) notes that the Persians all the Scythians called Sakas,. Thus, the ethnonym" saki "was used for the Scythian peoples, living in the neighborhood with the kingdom of the Achaemenids in Central Asia, and the Persians moved to the Greeks, who have always celebrated the identity of these ethnographic concepts "[Light, 1955, p. 169].
By the way the Greek authors noted not only the identity of these ethnonyms, but most importantly have kept this identity and ethnically as follows Saks Scythians = = Turks, what is most important for us. Greek, in this case the Byzantine authors, namely, Menander, who lived and wrote in the second half of the VI century AD Turks referred to the Scythians.
Here we note that the history of the Turks, their embassies, military companies of Hagan, he is familiar enough. But in addition, we know that in the VI century BC in Constantinople lived thousands of Turks; Hundreds of them participated in the embassies of the Byzantines and Turks as guides and interpreters. It seems that by Menander was not a stretch, or fiction, when he calls the Turks Scythians. For the VI century Byzantine historian Turkic language and is driven by a familiar language, the language of the Huns, whom the Byzantine Empire was at war, suffered defeat, paying tribute. There are many links between the two empires - the Huns and Byzantines. Also in the VI century the Byzantine Empire had suffered military defeats sensitive Turkic Avars. So - I think - so close combat cooperation was to cause a reaction, the interest on the part of military officials, diplomats Empire and encourage them to study the language and the history of these peoples. The Greeks knew the Turkic language and, of course, distinguish it from Iran. Therefore Menander Turkic speech in the VI century called Scythian. So, the Scythians spoke the Turkic language. "Menander included in the narrative of the Embassy Zemarh the Turkic Khan (568) deserve our attention descriptions cleaning preventive magic. ... Took things that the Romans brought with them, sklali them together, then lit a fire tree boughs Lebanon, whispering in the Scythian language ( in this case the Turkish language - TR) some barbaric words Livanov They carried around the branch that popped from the fire only after the fiery purification Zemarh was admitted to the khan "[Gumilev, 1993, with... 85].
In addition, as noted by S. Zakirova, in the XIII century, the Byzantines continued to call Turks Kipchak Scythians: "When the head of Egypt's control became a Scythian (ie kipchak.- SZ), is even more needed in Egypt Scythian tribe of them were army - Byzantine historian wrote Pahimer "[Zakirov, 1966, p. 37].
In general, with respect to the fire at the Turkish-speaking and Iranian peoples it was different, that is very true and subtly noted the outstanding scientist of the twentieth century turkologist LN Gumilev: "incredible and F. Ratzel assumption about the relationship tsentralnoazitskogo worship fire with Zoroastrianism, and since then the similarity is purely superficial in Persia modedan-mobeds approaching the sacred fire, put on a veil, so as not to offend the fire breathing, and then a fire scare away evil spirits. , that is the most impure in the world. the fact that Iran fire was the object of worship, and in the Turkic tribes magical tool, that is essentially no resemblance between them was not observed "[Gumilev, 1993, p. 85].
The rich military and political history of Saks gives us indirect examples of their ethnic and tribal strife confrontation with the Persians. War Saks and Iranians are of extraordinary ferocity, indicating that the dominant ethnic war - is the collision of two different worlds, cultures and civilizations in the broadest sense of the word. The same Herodotus, speaking of the Saks battle led by the queen Tomiris Cyrus wrote that this battle was the most violent of all the famous battles from the barbarians. The Persian king, going to war with Saks, declares that he is going to take revenge for the defeat and enslavement applied Medes Sakas. In this occasion for the war, we clearly illustrate, ethnic solidarity, Iranian brotherhood, the Persians and the Medes, who was of one language, and belief in the future common state. So in fact the founder of the Persian Empire, Cyrus is a son of the daughter of the Median king. Therefore, Midia, Persia and easily, with little painful, united under one scepter. Kinship and blood there. But not so with the Sakas.
We also know from the political history of Saks that no conqueror could not conquer or subdue them. Even Alexander the Great, although this fact is shamefully costing historians. The essence of the case as follows: "It is Central Asia proved to be the stumbling block on which crashed the offensive spirit of Alexander the Great and weakened his army so that it no longer had the strength to continue the conquest in the former scale by the end of the second year of staying here, he lost his best. part of the Macedonian cavalry "[Khidoyatov, 1990, p. 40]. VV Grigoriev in the book about the campaign of Alexander the Great in Central Asia, says: "If Darius was unable to defend against Alexander of his kingdom, if despicable coward turned Bess, here in Turan, there were hearts that could not reconcile a sense of obedience foreigners, who got down to business folk revenge uninvited strangers "[Khidoyatov, 1990, p. 41]. Continuing this thought, GA Khidoyatov says "After all, he came only to the Syr Darya, and then could not move, since there begins the territory of the Saks and a meeting with its people nothing good promise conqueror. Alexander did not want to risk the army and the reputation of" great ruler "and" the great king. " It was better to look for weaker opponents, and in the summer of 327, Alexander moved to India "[Khidoyatov, 1990, p. 41].
Persian state, the king and the people have not been able to provide decent resistance. It did saki, their high combat capability, militancy, horse army cavalry A tank, speed and maneuverability - these are characteristic features of military Turkic tribes. Stop and turn the army could only antlered them. Military history of the Turks chronologically clearly seen on the territory of Central Asia. Saki, the Huns and the Huns associated with the great migration of peoples, and then the Turkic and Khazar Khanate, Ghulam Mamluks and the Caliph and Arab dynasties, etc. The Turkic peoples have made to the art of war are many, if not more. The characteristic qualities of this type of warrior you can see in the article of the popular and well-known scientist in Kyrgyzstan VP Mokrynina, who notes:.. "The fact that sedentary people often took over the weapons and military tactics nomadic, written more than once, however, the influence of the warrior-steppe peoples, who had a large inverse authority on the farmer was much deeper than indicated sedentary nations were looking for an explanation of victories Turkic warrior not just in his arms, but also in its psychological superiority "[Mokrynin, 1983, p. 21].
An excellent description of the military qualities of the Turkic warriors we find an Arab scholar and lexicographer Al-Jahiz: "In his work, he compares the best-Arab soldiers (the Kharijites) with Turkic warriors and prefers Turks during exercise (VIII-IX centuries) have dominated. Karluk Turks "Turks shoots ... he produces ten arrows before Harwich put an arrow on the bowstring. ... <Highest perfection> China reached residents in crafts, in the wisdom of the Greeks and education, the Persians in the management of the kingdom, and the Turks in the war. But indeed, the lack of them ... longing for the homeland and commitment to the wanderings of the countries, organic passion for looting, love to capture prey and force of habit to the custom "[Mokrynin, Flat, p. 85]. But indeed, the lack of them ... longing for the homeland and commitment to the wanderings of the countries, organic passion for looting, love to capture prey and force of habit to the custom "[Mokrynin, Flat, p. 85].
In general, Saka strategy of warfare is the predecessor of the Turkic: cavalry armies retreat to luring the enemy inland and totally Turkic style of archery -at full gallop, running away from the enemy, Shoot turning back. In Persian history we find these techniques of horse archery. Only the Saka tribes, who honored as holy war and military affairs, could worship the sword: "In each of these armed mound old iron sword, and he is serving an idol of Ares' [Smirnov 1966, 162].
This type of weapon continues to be an object of worship and the Huns: "Sword enjoyed veneration even at that moment, when a wave of Huns absorbed Alans and ready. The sword is of the utmost importance in the history of the ascent to the heights of power of Attila. His claim to rule, he argued, using the sign chosen by God - sword "[Cardini, 1987, p. 99].
Holy, sacred sword and is the descendants of the Huns, Turks. Before deciding fateful battle sacred sword will be imposed before the battle formations of the Turks, strengthening their spirit and giving the victory. They believed in his extraordinary sacral power. This reverent attitude we find the sword to the Iranians. The undoubted high combat qualities of the Turks,
They were evaluated classical Chinese poetry of the Middle Ages. It is worth noting, that they did not differentiate between the Huns and Turks, counting them one nation. Here are the lines from the great Li Bo: "To fight the Huns, as the plowman plow. Whiten the bones in the fields again. " [Li Bo, 2000, p. 140]
Li Bai lived in VII-VIII centuries, so they described the Turks, but he called them Huns. He knew the ethnic history of the Great Steppe. All these examples are given in order to vividly show that Sakas, Huns, Turks are a people-soldier in military history where we find a lot in common, what unites and brings them closer.
In addition to the above, we have other evidence, emphasizing the commonality of these peoples, namely the well-known worship of ancestors from Saks, Huns, Turks: "There was the Scythians ancestor worship As part included in it the cult of the divine ancestors of the kings who had great political significance." [ Smirnov, 1966, p. 164].
Turkic know also worshiped ancestors and considered that they may affect the business and the lives of his contemporaries. Particularly venerated are the most famous and having great generalship gift Hagan past, thinking that their patronage of the most valuable. "The main cult of the nobles (Turkish - TR) was the cult of the ancestors" [Gumilev, 1993, p. 79] - notes LNGumilev. Then he writes: "Turkish ancestor worship has specificity that allows to specify its origin" [Gumilev, 1993, p. 81]. We add that the modern Turkic peoples, including Kyrgyz, Kazakhs and others still revered ancestors - Arbak, and is now asking them for help and protection, thus the cult of the ancestors of these peoples have centuries-old history. Strong tradition.
As these nations - Sakas, Huns, Turks, Kazakhs and Kyrgyz - from Herodotus to the present day milking mares and mare drank, ate the meat of clean animals. It indicates an outstanding Russian scientist of the XIX century, AI Levshin: "Smoked leg sated Kyrgyz foal is very tasty and the fat around them, wonderfully gentle There is no doubt that they are being peppered with a skilled chef, would have been a great meal on the table of a European deli, if prejudice or custom is not removed from. these things in our kitchen so clean animal "[Levshin, 1996, p. 304].
The Iranian nation neither in the past nor in the present did not use and do not use any of koumiss, no meat of these animals. Diametrically opposed and funerary rites at them. In the ancient Saks buried their chiefs with horses, weapons, slaves. The same did the Huns and Turks. At this time, the Iranians, Zoroastrians believed all dead unclean and therefore left to be eaten by birds and animals.
An interesting detail of the cooking at Saks, in the absence of boiler Herodotus gives us: "If they do not have such a boiler, then put all the meat in the stomachs of animals, pour the water and the bottom ignite bones" [Herodotus, 1999, p. 254]. Description of the same way of cooking in Kyrgyz, we find the outstanding scientist of Kyrgyzstan M. Abramzon. He was "in a conversation with the hunters managed to learn about the ancient method of cooking meat in the absence of metal utensils. As a vessel for cooking the meat used animal stomach (karyn).
There were placed pieces of meat with bones and poured water. Heats small stones the size and lowered them one by one in a vessel. The cooled stone was removed and replaced by another lowered so the water boil and the meat to weld ... Obviously, this is one of the oldest methods of cooking meat, which existed from hunters and nomadic herders "[Abramson, 1990, p. 108].
Note that among the Russian, Kyrgyz historians of Europe are reputable scientists who absented Saks to the Turks. So "the founder of Russian historical thought VN Tatishchev - as noted by AA Arslanova - attributed the Tatars in the so-called" Scythian "group together with other Turkic peoples" [Arslanova, 1997, p. 34].
For European scholars of the XIX century the thesis of the Iranian language of Saks, was clearly the exact opposite of "prevailing in the Western European scientific belief that Saks, like all other nomads on Jaxartes and Jaxartes, belong to the Turanian (Turks - TR) Turanians meaning by the peoples of Central Asia and North Asia, alien Aryan tribe, Ugric, Turkic, Mongolian "[Grigoriev, 1998, p. 58].
For example Mordman, meticulously and systematically researched the history of Saks known ancient name of the river Oxus treats as Turkic and translate "ok" - boom (arrow?), "sou" - water, in general "boom(arrow?)-river". According to him - said VV Grigoriev - in Turkish it was called "Oxus". Also Mordman researched the name of "tails" by reading his Persian "Atrak", ie with a typical Turkic roots. Recall that Mordman believes that this name was wearing one of the Kipchak khans. In the end it came to the basic conclusion: "Saki simply Turks" [op. by: Grigoriev, 1998, p. 70]. For exactly the same conclusion after the research came a German scientist, "the Viennese Orientalist Hammer, who believed Saks for the Turks" [Grigoriev, 1998, p. 71].
VV Grigoriev, resulting in the above-mentioned opinion of European researchers, in the heat of the scientific controversy, as it is sometimes known among scientists, said in their address, so assume Only plebeians from science. In addition to the West-European scientists of the Saka Turks considered authoritative Kyrgyz Soviet scientist AN Bernshtam. He wrote: "We believe that a strong core was among the Turkic amyurgiyskih Saks, perhaps among the Saka-tigrahauda" [Bernshtam, 1997, p. 195]. Then he gives a chronological diagram of ethno-continuity: saki-amyurgii - Usuns - Western Turks [Bernshtam, 1997, p. 196].
In conclusion, we note the continuity, logical development, the completion of Saka material culture in its Turkish continuation. We see this in the famous balbals - Saka and Turkic. Even with the naked eye of the layman can identify similarities in the stone sculptures Saka and Turkic. Saki has not yet been completed, the master's hand has not yet reached perfection. Perfection comes in Turkic era.
Tashbaba from Kazakhstan and stone relief from Troy VI
SM Abramson The Kyrgyz and their ethno-genetic, historical and cultural ties. - Frunze, 1990
Arslanova AA On the question of the ethnonym Tatars // Tatarica 1997/98. - Kazan 1997
Attokurov SA Kyrgyz genealogy // Kyrgyz and Kyrgyzstan:
experience a new historical interpretation. - Bishkek 1994.
Bernshtam AN Selected works on archeology and the history of the Kyrgyz people and Kyrgyzstan. T. I. - Bishkek 1997
Herodotus. History. - M., 1999
Grigoriev VV About Scythian people Saks. - Almaty, 1998
Gulyaev VI The Scythians in the Don // question mark, 2001, .№ 1
LN Gumilyov Ancient Turks. - Moscow, 1993
Zakirov S. diplomatic relations with Egypt, the Golden Horde. - Moscow, 1966
Cardini, Franco. The origins of medieval chivalry. - Moscow, 1987
VB Kovalevskaya The horse and rider. - Moscow, 1977
Levshin. AI Description Kirghiz-Cossack or Kirghiz Kaisak hordes and steppes. - Almaty, 1996
Li Bo. Jade rock. - C-P 2000.
Mokrynin VP Information on the Turkic peoples in the mineralogical treatise Al-Biruni
// Kyrgyzstan at Karakhanids. - Frunze 1983
Mokrynin VP, VM Flat The history of Kyrgyzstan. - Bishkek
Light YM In the footsteps of travelers and explorers of the East. - M., 1955
Smirnov AP Scythians. - M., 1966
VN Tatishchev History of Russia since ancient times. T. 4. -. M-L, 1966 Khidoyatov GA My own story. - Tashkent, 1990
Proceedings of the scientific conference "State in Kyrgyzstan and Central Asia: History and Prospects" BISHKEK, 12 - 13 May 2003
google translate from Russian link:
Finial Sculpture in Bronze of Mountain Ibex
Sacae/Scythian-Siberian animal style
Çadır Tepeliği Teke - Saka Dönemi - Hakasya
The same as from Military Museum-İstanbul; Hun Turks period
İstanbul Askeri Müzede Hun döneminden "Çadır Tepeliği Teke" ile aynı....
Ram - 8th century - Arzhan I (video)