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13 Temmuz 2016 Çarşamba

Türkler ve Amerika Yerlileri - Turks and Native Americans








Doç.Dr.Musfafa Aksoy'un "Pantalon" ile ilgili makalesini daha önce paylaşmıştım. Araştırma yaparken bu kaya resmine denk geldim ve "Daha ne kadar Muhteşem olabilir ki"  dedim. Amerika Yerlileri ile ilgili daha önceki paylaşımlarım da da benzer kültür ögeleri vardı. Ovoolar, Yas İfadeleri, Ölü Gömme, Dil, kilim ve halılardaki motifler ve özellikle de pantalon üzerindeki Tamga'nın Türkiye'de hala görülmesi, Arizona Yerlisinin çizmiş olduğu bu Kaya Resminin pantalon üzerindeki Tamga ile tıpatıp aynısı olması . Dil konusunda araştırma yapan sayısızca akademisyen var. Ve bunların hiçbiri tesadüf olamaz. ... Israrla Türk Tarihine, Türk Kültürüne burun kıvıran o "indo-avrupacı" zihniyet artık hiçbir veriyi saklayamaz. Bir zamanların sloganı olan "Tarih Sümerle başlıyor" artık geçmişte kaldı, çünkü Tarih Türk'le başlıyor....




Turkish Pants from East Turkestan c.1500 BC

Socks (left) is from Ardahan, was knitted in 1953, before the pant was founded in 2014


From Tumamoc Hill Arizona
Tumamoc Hill (Boynuzlu Kertenkele) y.460 adet kaya resmi var -Arizona
Hohokam/O'odham Amerika Yerlileri : link -  link - link - link





Bulkaz Yörükleri-Uşak (Foto: Mehmet Demirel)
Turkish Needlework from Bulkaz Youruks-Uşak
The term Yörük /Yürük (Youruk) is derived from the Turkish verb "to walk, to march" "yori" (today yürü- walk). 
And Yörük (+ler) (Youruk+s) are not a different ethnic. They are Turkish people.







Yanghai-Doğu Türkistan'da bulunan ve MÖ.1500-1200 arasına tarihlenen pantalondaki tamganın aynısını Arizona'da görüyoruz. Hohokam ve onların soyundan gelen O'odham (Cemamagĭ Doʼag) yerlilerine ait Tumamoc Hill'de bulunuyor. Tam tarihini bulamasam da MÖ.500-1450 tarih aralığında. Bunun yanında Hohokam (Hu hu kam)'ların tarihi MÖ.2000'lere kadar geri gidebiliyor ve 1500'lerde buraları terk etmişler!(Neden terk ettikleri bilinmiyor!) 

Milattan önce (40.000-6.000) Orta Asya/Sibirya'dan Bering Boğazı'yla Amerika Kıtası'na giden Asya/Türk-yerlileri haricinde, 13.yy Cengiz Han'dan Amerika'ya kaçıp göç eden Türk boyları da var.

Bir başka benzeri de Neolitik Dönem Eski Zağra-Bulgaristan'dan... Neolitik dönemde Orta Asya-Kuzey Balkanlar arasındaki göç trafiği... O zaman en eskisi Eski Zağra'daki Tamga mı oluyor? Eski Zağra bölgesini Avrupa'nın en eski yerleşim yeri olarak görüyorlar. (MÖ.6000'lerde Bulgar-Türkler burada bulunmazken, birçok adreste Bulgarların ataları olarak tanıtılıyor! :)) 

Hepsi bir yana, bu damga sadece Türk Kültürü'nde görülüyor. ;)

SB.




Neolitik Dönem - Eski Zağra / Bulgaristan




Cengiz Han'dan kaçan halkın bir kısmı (Na-Dene) Alaska ve Batı Kanada'ya, bir kısmı da Güney Kalifornia (California)'ya gelir. Bazı Atabaşkanlar 13.yy-16.yy arası Kolorado (Colorado)ya yerleşir. Bu ikisi arasında ise pantalondaki tamgayla aynı tamgaya sahip olan kaya resminin bulunduğu Arizona eyaleti var. Atabaşkan dil ailesi (Athabascan) Alaska-New Orleans arası yerlilerin (Navajo, Apaçiler dahil) kullandığı dildir. Hohokamların torunları O'odham kabilesinden olan Sobaipuri (Sobai-Suvar/Subar?!)kabilesi Hohokamlar çıktıktan sonra Arizona'ya yerleştiği biliniyor. Stewart'a göre Haida Yerlileri (Hei'T'a-T'a) yani Kara Tatar.(bk.Wilson)

Kitap:
Cengiz Han'dan Amerika'ya Kaçan Türkler 1233 M.S. Dene ve Na-Dene Kızılderilileri - Ethel G.Stewart
(Dene And Na Dene Indian Migration 1233 A.D: Escape from Genghis Khan to America)

Stewart'tan yola çıkarak Wilson'da Tibet'e bağlamak ister.(Türk olabileceklerini düşünmez bile :)). Stewart için, dil ve din üzerinden Orta Asya'ya bağlamasını göz ardı edilemez bir gerçek olarak niteler, ve birçok kapıyı açtığını söyler. Asya'ya özgü yayların MS.800'de Amerika'da görüldüğü kanıtlanmış. [Wilson dipnot 12,(composite bow)-This Land Was Theirs: A Study of Native Americans,Wendell H. Oswalt ]

Relatives Halfway Round the World: Southern Athabascans and Southern Tarim Fugitives - Joseph A.P. Wilson








There is also connecting between Turks-Scandinavians and America Natives. Look for Tyker and Odin article below this page-SB




an interesting article:

As shown by an explosive article in Science last year, "A Genetic Atlas of Human Admixture History," the genetic signatures of historical admixture events are persistent, even on a fine scale. Among 100 cases of historical admixture involving two distant, separate populations coming together, the authors detected the genetic impacts of the Mongol empire, Arab slave trade, Bantu expansions and European colonialism in the Americas. But many, if not most of the admixture events occurring since 2000 BCE turn out to be unrecorded and previously unknown. They can be reconstructed and established only by genetics and the tell-tale survival of segments of distinctive DNA in descendants. 

Of interest to us is admixture in the Pima Indians of southern Arizona and northern Sonora, long held by anthropologists to be a classic "Amerind" population (see vintage photo of Pima man)The Pima case study from the genetic atlas of admixture by Hellenthal et al. is a simple instance of one-time collision between two interbreeding populations. A "Turkish-like" Side 1 is one of the parent populations of the mixture. Its largest distinctive element is Greek and Sardinian. Side 1 joined together with Side 2, a Maya-like population. Their union is estimated to have occurred around 1754. 

We suggest this date corresponds to the spread of Spanish Missions in Sonora (to which southern Arizona then belonged), which brought slaves and workers from within Mexico to work in the mines (Side 2). This means the Mediterranean-like Side 1 corresponded to the existing number of about 2,000 Pima and Papago Indians. Their distinctive marks, genetically speaking, were resemblances to Greeks, Sardinians and related Mediterranean populations





The Pima man shown above has a physiology and facial features unlike many other American Indians; for instance, he has a Roman nose, thin lips, non-Asiatic eyes and a heavy musculature. He evokes the Doryphorus, a canonic statue by Polyclitus, a Greek sculptor who dominated the art of ancient Libya, the eventual home of the Sea Peoples. The features of the Doryphorus were considered the ideal of male beauty.

Barry Fell was perhaps the first to suggest that Minoans, followed by the Sea Peoples, Libyans and Phoenicians, discovered the rich metals of the American Southwest after 2000 BCE and developed its first civilizations, for which the cultural earmarks were pithouses, adobe, trade centers like Snaketown, fortresses and walled cities, painted pottery and irrigation systems. Thus, the Coyote Chant of the Pima Indians, which the Smithsonian interpreted as a crude invocation of a totem spirit, Fell translated as a Libyan version of the Aesop fable about the Fox and the Grapes, one commonly used in ancient schoolrooms. (See especially, Saga America, Epilog:  Sunset at Cyrene, pp. 387ff.) It would appear that the Pima and Papago Indians, whose ancient name was Hohokam ("Sea Peoples") long stood apart from other Indians and preserved their ancient roots until the mixing and melding of Indian populations that occurred under the Spanish. 

The presence of 7-10% Greek and related DNA in Pima populations today also explains the survival of the labyrinth symbol, diagnostic of Minoan civilization, and early legends about the Earth Doctor, who founded their tribe coming from the other side of the world. Their spiritual leaders are called Siwani, after the Siwa oasis in Libya. Snaketown and Tumamoc Hill overlooking Tucson, two of their principal towns, allude to the Water or Snake Clan or ships of the Sea People and the horny toad or armored figure in their mythology. Tumamoc literally means "Mound of the Magician," as armored, advanced navigators and miners were considered magicians by the primitive "Indians" they encountered. One of the original names of the Hopi was Moki ("magicians, magi"), and the real name of the Zuni is Shiwi, another reference to the sacred site Shiwa and universal principal god Shiva (both of which predate Egyptian, Hebrew and Greek religion).  

Other smaller contributors to Side 1 admixture in the Pima are Tunisian, Mozabite, Druze and Bedouin DNA, reinforcing the North African component of the seaborne civilizers who built the Southwest's first "Indian" towns. The stone structures atop Tumamoc Hill have been securely dated to at least third century BCE. The three story tower that originally stood on the summit is gone now, but there is an inscription near the highest point facing modern-day Tucson in ancient Phoenician letters. It is an offering to Tanit and Baal, the gods of the Sea Peoples. A similar inscription is at the top of A Mountain or Signal Hill just to the east of Tumamoc. 

Before modern times, if a Pima woman was impregnated by an Apache, white man or any non-Pima male the child would be killed at birth. Such measures preserved the integrity of the Pima population. Both Side 1 and Side 2 share South American Indian DNA (Columbian Indian, Karitiana). Side 1 is further marked by a different type of Maya, Daur (a Khitan or Turkic/Mongol type), Xibe (a Mongolian people formerly known as Shiwei--a coincidence?) and the She people, an important coastal Cantonese Chinese ethnic group (were they some of the ship owners?). 

Side 2, the "Amerind" partner in the admixture, in addition to being about two-thirds Central and South American Indian in DNA segments, had significant strips of recombinant genetic material matching Japanese (2.9), Han Chinese (2.3), Oroqen, a Mongol or Turkic people (1.9), Hazra, an important Afghan people (1.6)[HAZARA-which is also Turkish tribe-SB], Chuvash (Turkic, Central Asian, 1.4), Yakut (Turkic from Lake Baikal, 1.0), Burushko (Phyrigian or Macedonian or Anatolian people who migrated to Pakistan with Alexander the Great, 1.0) and Hezhen (a tiny Altaic Turkic minority today in northeast China, 0.8). 

The diverse list of contributions on both sides of the admixture equation shows that the Pima were formed from a complex scenario of three or more admixture events in history, not just a simple case from the mid-eighteenth century. All the constituent populations can still be picked out today with admixture analysis. The Pima Indians' genetic characteristics are compound admixture over time, with key events occurring in the second millennium, about 225 BCE, 600 CE, 900 CE, 1100 CE and 1750 CE. 

The original Greek origin of the settlements in Arizona may have been apparent to other pre-Columbian visitors and settlers, including the Romans, who claim to have created the records known as the Tucson Crosses or Calalus Artifacts. Is it a coincidence that a property marker midway between Tucson and Phoenix in the lower Santa Cruz river valley has a large inscription in ancient Roman capitals that reads, "Greeks" (Attii). 

This article is excerpted from a work-in-progress by Donald N. Yates, The Tucson Artifacts:  A Paleographical and Photographic Edition of the Roman Jewish Artifacts in the Arizona Historical Society Collection.  - link 
I wrote a comment to this article about the symbol on Turkish pants, but still not accepted. And Attii is in Turkish not in Greek, it means ancestor "Ata"  -  future "Ati" - SB




Deer or Goat (Geyik ya da Teke) and God (Tengri) symbols (tamgas) - America

for more photos







Other Articles



It's official: Native Americans and Siberians are cousins

After more than a century of speculation, an international group of geneticists has conclusively proven that the Aztecs, Incas, and Iroquois are closely related to the peoples of Altai, the Siberian region that borders China and Mongolia. Scientists have suspected for a long time that Native Americans are closely related to the peoples of Altai. The theory of the Altai peoples migrating from Siberia across Chukotka and Alaska, down to the Tierra del Fuego at the tip of South America, appeared almost a century ago.

Since then researchers have tried to prove this, and in late 2015 the famous Russian geneticist, Oleg Balanovsky, finally confirmed the theory. In addition, Dr. Balanovsky'sstudies also proved that some Native Americans have kinship with the indigenous populations of Australia. "The current study confirms the theory that the Altai peoples are closely related to Native Americans,'' said geneticist Valery Ilyinsky at the RAS Institute of General Genetics. ''We now have clear proof, and it is useless to contest it.''

In 2013, two of the world's leading scientific magazines, Nature, and Science, published articles about the analysis of whole genomes in Native Americans and their Siberian cousins. A comparison was made with populations in other regions throughout the world. The first study analyzed 48 people from Brazil. The second study analyzed 31 genomes from peoples in the U.S. and Siberia. Results from both studies confirmed that the ancestors of Native Americans left Siberia about 20,000-30,000 years ago.

After these publications Dr. Balanovsky decided to conduct a larger study, and so he notified international colleagues. They immediately responded to his request. In the first stage, scientists analyzed DNA samples from the Russian biobank. "Our biobank contains more than 25,000 samples from representatives of 90 nationalities in Russia and neighboring countries," Dr. Balanovsky told RBTH.

In the second stage, the DNA was analyzed according to various markers such as the Y chromosome that is inherited from the male line, as well as the mitochondrial DNA that is inherited from the female line, and other chromosomes that are combined from both parents. As a result, scientists proved beyond a doubt that Native Americans are closely related to the peoples of Altai. But during the study another discovery was made.

"Besides Siberian ancestors, some Native Americans showed a puzzling relation to the indigenous peoples of Australia and Melanesia in the Pacific Ocean,'' remarked Dr. Balanovsky. "This is astounding because they are located in an almost opposite part on the planet.'' Scientists already know how humans traveled to the Americas from Altai. "Instead of the Bering Strait there was a land bridge [30,000 years ago], because during the Ice Age much water was locked in glaciers and the level of the world's oceans was lower," Dr. Balanovsky explained. He added that it's still not clear whether migration from Australia and Melanesia to the Americas was directly across the ocean, or by going up along the coast and via the Aleutian Islands. Archaeologists continue to study this issue.

Russia Beyond the Headlines-February 2016








"Wolves and dogs first taught the Blackfoot how to hunt in, packs. You can still see them in the sky as makio-yohsokoyi, the Wolf Trail or Milky Way, reminding the people how to work together. The wolves also told them that animals with hoofs and horns were all right to eat, but those with paws and claws should be left alone. Horses were never keen on this, but when the Blackfoot got the big horses and called them ponokaomitai-ksi, or elk-dogs, the horses liked that name, and felt honoured when elk antlers were used in sacred rituals."

"Suddenly, the Blackfoot seemed to be losing a way of life that had originally been created by horses and humans thousands of years earlier, when their ancient kin- the tribes of central Asia - had first ridden a horse and spread out across the steppes in nomadic civilisations that became a wonder of the world."


Horse: How the Horse Has Shaped Civilizations by J. Edward Chamberlin









Scientists have discovered a community of Kazakhstan in the works of the Turkic peoples and American Indians

Orientalists of Kazakhstan, a comparative study of the culture of the Turkic peoples and American Indians discovered a surprising commonality in their work.  This writes the Senior Researcher, Institute of Oriental Studies. R.B.Suleymenova MES RK, Doctor of Historical Sciences Shaizada Tohtabaeva in the "Kazakhstanskaya Pravda" in the article "From the Kazakh Tukum to papaya seed Navajo." For domestic work carried out by professionals it is of great interest first and foremost because it was found a close relationship in the national applied art of the Kazakhs and the American Indians. This connection seems intriguing and mysterious, since the two nations shared a huge space in the form of the ocean, which for the ancient man, at first glance, seems insurmountable.

So still from stems (if any) such unity in the works of Kazakh and Indian peoples? Because detected parallels the mass, for example, in the woven art of the Kazakhs and the Navajo Indian tribe. Similarity in color, ornamental motifs and compositional decisions knots woven fabrics of the two peoples is truly amazing and impressive. Parallels can be traced to simple and complex elements and motives of patterns, characterized by a certain form and semantic unity. Many parallels in the patterns formed from homogeneous motifs combined logical and focus in the ornament, and, finally, the entire ornament composition including color characteristics.

Genesis of American Indians has long been a matter of interest to the scientific world. According to research by American scientists from the University of Michigan, USA territory populated by Asian tribes - the hunters of southern Siberia in several stages. migration time, by assumption of historians, takes about 70 thousand. BC to 12 th. The ancient people, getting to Chukotka, crossed the narrow strait that separates Asia from North America, now known as the Bering Strait. This is supported also the results of the genetic study of American Indians and people of southern Siberia. This hypothesis was considered in the works of Western and Russian scientists, is the increasing development of Kazakhstani researchers who have significantly expanded the question. And, in turn, have put forward a range of justifications affinity American Indians not only Asian but also Turkic tribes.

Even in Soviet times known orientalist Abrar Karimullin wrote that since the seventeenth century until the twentieth century, many scientists have drawn attention to the remarkable anthropological, linguistic (phonetic language, tone of voice) similarity of the Indian tribes of the Maya, Quechua, the Sioux and other with the Turkic ethnic groups. For example, the Swedish orientalist Stig Wikander, stating in 1970 the results of comparative analysis of the Mayan languages ​​and Turkic peoples, came to the conclusion on their genetic relationship. The famous Russian scientist Yuri Knorozov regardless S. Wikander also established linguistic similarity of the most important, essential concepts of bearing 300 words Turkic ethnic groups and Mayan Indian.

Amazing parallels observed in the material culture of American Indians and Kazakhs. Arts and Crafts of the two peoples of different deep originality and expressiveness. Thus the main artistic means, is filled with magical life of traditional objects of folk life, it was design - a kind of "language", performed in the past, cognitive, communicative, artistic, aesthetic, magical-religious and other functions. Here are some comparative studies ornament elements. For example, a triangular motif, correlating with the number three (Ush - Kazakhs; Osh - the Maya), represented the three vertical levels: the upper - the celestial, the middle - of the earth and the lower - the underground. However, in the Turkish, and Indian culture triangle was used as a talisman.

If we turn to the ancient cult of the stars, from the space objects in the traditional culture of Turkic and Indian peoples are popular motifs of the sun, month, stars, and the Milky Way, Venus, North Star, the Big Dipper, the Pleiades. Comparative solar signs in the arts and crafts of Turkic peoples and Indians reveals similarities not only fine (in the form of a vortex outlet, a circle with radiating rays of the cross with a dot in the center), but also in the title - kun kun and the Kazakhs in the Mayan language. I should add that the Kazakhs, and American Indians in the past correlated souls with stars.

In the traditions of the two nations compared widespread foliage image, shamrock, flowers, vegetable seeds, which symbolized fertility, eternal renewal and rebirth of life. Seeds in the representation of the Kazakhs and the American Indians, for example, the Navajo were associated with a healthy offspring and fertility. These floral motifs, namely Tukum (in Kazakh - seeds) appear in many jewelry Kazakhs. Curiously, the Navajo Nation in this regard it is preferred melon seeds.

Much in common in the traditional culture of the two nations due to the different animals that were totems of certain tribes and clans that sealed in the folklore and tamgas. The Kazakh applied arts, in particular, felt and embroidery often present stylized antlers. In the Indian tradition is also popular image of a deer - the totem of some genera. Deer personified the idea of ​​love, tenderness and kindness, and elk - strength, endurance and freedom. If the applied arts of the Turkic peoples of wildlife images reproduced often in stylized form, the Indian art (monumental sculpture, rock paintings), a significant percentage of plays takes a realistic manner.

The most popular in the applied arts of the peoples have compared bird images are almost all nations have been associated with the sky, the sun, the upper world. In the language of the Kazakhs bird called құs and Maya - kosh. In Indian tradition, the eagle personified divine power. It is interesting that the principle of the image "mottled" motif, ie, beak, claws and eyes instead of the whole animal can be traced both in the applied art of the Kazakhs and Indians. Designated in the works compared the two nations took a frog, symbolizing fertility. It is interesting that the Kazakhs and Indians (particularly Maya) frog called by the same word - baқa.

Among the subject-domestic artistic motifs, magic values ​​which are clearly manifested in the traditions of the Kazakhs and Indians, of particular interest are onions image of arrows and rush. Their images in ornament products presented as a protection against negative forces. In addition, people in ancient times believed that the bows, arrows and spikes, arranged in a pattern, can contribute to a large, healthy offspring, which, in my opinion, reflects the symbolic layering of motifs.

Still I would like to acknowledge the community in geometrisation ornamental motifs. Similar, for example, are simple and complex elements in the form of a cross, square, rhombus, stripes, triangles, zigzag, parallelogram. From the art of Indian motifs with Kazakh and correlate multi-toothed diamond, diamond cross, multi zigzagovidnaya line, bow and arrow, horns, spider, bird and other. Some woven product, such as Navajo Wool Cape leader and valise Kazakh (in Kazakh - korzhyn) comparable centric principle of building decoration, the character of the central module formed from the geometrical ornamental motifs. Important likeness itself compositional ideas: a variety of rhythm through a combination of static and dynamic multi-cross diamond-shaped contour which, slightly ranging, repeated in the closing frames. The echoes of the compared products and flavor - a combination of yellow, black, red and terracotta colors. Similar and symbolic interpretation of ornamental motifs. In particular, in both compared samples of the cross symbolizes the four cardinal directions and the sun at the same time; diamond means fertility, zigzagovidnaya line - a rainbow.

Thus, the comparative analysis of the Indian and Kazakh products of national applied art in weaving, jewelery and other forms of folk art allows to establish the similarity and sometimes identity of the technique, category, form, semantic content, including in the ornament, which are mostly a symbol of ancient cosmology. But over time, some of the motifs, having lost its original meaning, based on new associations have received a new interpretation, later becoming a tradition. All of this may reflect different interpretations of the community associative thinking in the human scale, or indicate a genetic relationship.

google translate from Russian
Tuva.Asia News July 2013










"A certain community of Neolithic migrants traversed Eurasia from Kazakhstan to the Eastern Europe, bringing with them a peculiar animal husbandry producing economy, a peculiar etiology attested by kurgan burials, and a peculiar egalitarian social system, learned of metallurgy in the Northern Balkans, and in reciprocal migrations 
spread that practice back to their homeland. "...
"Turkish-style riding pants are at least a millennium older than the Roman and Greek Empires, older than Etruscans in the Apennine Peninsula, and older than Chinese Empire. It attests that riding, pants were worn 
three and a half millennia before our time."
JOURNAL OF EURASIAN STUDIES
Volume VII., Issue 2. / April — June 2015


Prof.Abrar Karimullin (1925-2000) Kazan University
Proto-Türks and American Indians
Tracing a hypothesis
Kazan, Insan, 1995, ISBN: 5-85840-275-5 (In Russian)




"Kuzey Amerika Kıtası’nda yaşayan Kızılderilileri oluşturan başlıca soylar şunlardır: Na-dene, Aztec-Tanoan, Hokan-Sioux, Algonkin-Wakashan, Penutian, Eskimo-Aleut."
KUZEY AMERİKA YERLİLERİ NA-DENE’LERİN ORTA ASYA VE SİBİRYA’NIN GÖÇEBE KAVİMLERİ İLE BAĞLANTILARI
Dr.Egemen Çağrı Mızrak



"Amerind kelimesi American ve Indian kelimelerinden kısaltılmıştır ve Amerika‟ya ilk ayak basan yerlileri anlatmak için kullanılmaktadır. Yapılan araştırmalara göre Eski Dünyadan Yeni Dünyaya göçler üç farklı zamanda olmuştur. Yaklaşık 12-15 bin yıl önce Amerika‟ya göçenlere Amerind, 5-7 bin yıl önce göçenlere Na-Dene ve yaklaşık 1-2 bin yıl önce göçenlere Eskimo-Aleut adı verilmektedir. Na-Denelerin Çin-Kafkas dilleri konuşanlarla akraba oldukları yolunda görüşler vardır. Eskimo-Aleutlar ise günümüzde hem Amerika hem de Asya kıtasında yaşamaktadırlar. Amerindlerin Asya kökenli oldukları kabul edilmekte fakat hangi Asyalı milletlerle bağları olduğu konusunda kesin bilgiler bulunmamaktadır. Ülkemizde şimdiye kadar yapılan çalışmalarda bazı Amerikan yerlileriyle ve Türkler arasında bağların olabileceği yolunda düşünceler vardır. Oysa Amerind kuramını geliştiren J. H. Greenberg ve onun öğrencisi M. Ruhlen‟a göre Amerikan yerlilerinin çoğu daha derinlerde birbirleriyle akrabadırlar. Bu görüş doğru ise Türklerin sadece bazı Amerikan yerlileriyle değil pek çok Amerikan yerli grubuyla bağlarının olması gerekir."...
AMERİND DİLLERİNDE TÜRKÇE İZLERİ / PDF
by Prof.Dr.Ekrem Arıkoğlu 
Kırgızistan-Türkiye Manas Üniversitesi






(Wolf Totem in Native Americans and Turkish Myths )






Ometepe - New Mexico - Kyrgyzstan and Khakasia
Tepe in Ometepe is Turkish "TEPE": means hill, little mountain; like in their language "tepetl (mountain)"
like in Chapultepec in Mexico




// Turkish Culture.


Turkish Symbols (Tamgas)...

Turkish term "Tamga" is a property mark, a necessity when your property has four legs and is grazing in unfenced pastures, hundreds and thousands of them commingling with other hundreds and thousands belonging to hundreds of families 
that live together and exploit the same grazing range.

Tamgas were the most precious possession of a tribe, clan, or individual, they were heirloom and heritage, 
and they carried a great legal significance, like today's family name.

Marked on carpets, artifacts, animals, branding horses, gravestones Taşbaba (stone statues-leader himself), 
Balbals (stone statues of enemies-even an other Turkish tribe) 
and stone/wooden monuments over the burial kurgans (tumulus, barrows, burial mounds).

Accordingly, an unjustified use of tamga, by a person ineligible for tamgas, or use of another person tamga was classed as a most grave crime, and persecuted accordingly. All the places were the Turkish peoples went, 
you can see a Tamga of a family or tribe and these conventions are still observed 
in the societies which practice the tamga traditions.





These Tamgas are not to be seen among indo-europeans. 
If they used, then they are of Turkish origin.
So, not everything is "indo-European"!
Regards.
SB.




// Türk Kültürü.