Traian's Column - 2nd c AD - National Geographic
Colossal statue of a Dacian Roman 2nd century , with pants and scythian cap,
typical Scythian/Saka/Part/ Massagetae Clothes.
...to offer a few observations with regard to those less distant inhabitants of Asia, who under the name of Medes, Assyrians, Persians, Partians, Amazons, Phrygians, Lycians and Syrians, though a rece totally distinct from the Greeks, had with these European neighbours some intercourse; and whose representations not unfrequently recur in their paintings and sculpture.
Of the male attire of the different nations inhabiting the region now called Asia Minor, the prevailing features seem to have been a vest with long tight sleeves reaching down to the wrists; and long pantaloons descending to the ancles, nay often hanging over the instep and losing themselves within side the shoes or sandals.
These pantaloons even clothe those masculine ladies the Amazons, whenever they are represented on some warlike expedition ; though at other times, when at home and engaged in peaceful pursuits, they appear in petticoats like other females.
Sometimes these pantaloons were made of the skins of animals ; at others of rich and fine tissues embroidered or painted in sprigs, spots, stripes, cheques, zig-zags, lozenges, or other ornaments.
Sometimes they fit tight, at others they hang loose and fall in large wrinkles over the shoes. The vest, always of the same stuff and design with the pantaloons, seems like our modern waistcoats, to have opened in front; and to have been closed by means of claps or buttons placed at considerable distances from each other.
Over this vest was most frequently worn a wide sleeveless tunic of a different texture and pattern; clasped on the shoulders, confined by a girdle round the waist, and when long, gathered up a second time, by means of another ligature lower down; and of this tunic the skirts reached to about the middle of the thigh.
To this thus far light and airy dress, aged and dignified persons still added a mantle or peplum, different from that of the Greeks, in being edged found with a regular and distinct fringe, not interwoven with the body of the stuff, but purposely tacked on; and which studied enrichment never observable in Grecian dresses, is in fact represented by eschylus as a characteristic peculiarity of the peplum of the barbarians, or Asiatic nations.
The Partians, and other more inland sovereigns of Asia, are sometimes though seldom represented on their coins bareheaded; with their long hair and bushy beards most finically dressed and curled. Often they wear a cylindrical cap, rather wider at the top than at the bottom, called mitra by the Greeks, sometimes encircled by a diadem, and at others loaded with different emblematic ornaments; the shape of which cap is to this day preserved in that of the Armenian priests.
The Medes and Persians seem more generally to have worn the cidaris, or conical cap, sometimes terminating in a sharp point; at others truncated, and mostly loaded with ornaments. The prevailing male head-dress of the Asiatics bordering on the Euxine and the Archipelago appears to have been that which is generally known by the name of the Phrygian bonnet, and of which the characteristic features are its point or top bent down forward , and its long flaps descending on the shoulders.
Sometimes this covering seems to have been a mere cap of the most soft and pliant stuff, unable to support itself upright, and hanging down in large wrinkles; at others it appears to have formed a helmet of the most hard and inflexible substance-of leather or even of metal-standing quite stiff and smotth and enriched with embossed ornaments.
In many of these helmets the flaps descending on the shoulders are four in number and probably were cut out of the legs of the animals, whose hide or skin formed the body of the cap. In most of the lighter caps we only discern one single pair of flaps, which are often tucked up, and confined by a string round the crown.
In the figures of Amazons we often see the beak of the helmet terminate in the bill of a griffin and its spine or back rise in the jagged crest of that fabulous animal; under which shape this covering may be considered as a sort of trophy, worn in consequence of the defeat and formed out of the very spoil of some griffin, with whom the Amazons are represented as constantly at war.
Minerva herself sometimes appears in a Phrygian helmet of this species, probably when represented as worshipped at Troy ; and Roma likewise wears it on many Latin coins; in oreder, no doubt, to indicate the kindred which the Romans claimed with the Trojans.
This Phrygian bonnet seems to have been retained by many of the officers of the Byzantine emperors; and to have been in its turn again borrowed from these by several of the dignitaries of the Turkish empire; nay to have travelled, during the intercourse of the Venetians with the Greeks, as far westward as Venice itself, where the Doge continued to wear it, to the last day of his power.
The Asiatics often wore half-boots laced before with four long depending flaps, shaped like those of their bonnets; and like those probably formed out of the legs of the animals, whose skins were converted into these buskins. Frequently eastern personages appear in shoes or slippers; and seldom if ever, in mere sandals, leaving the toes bare, like those worn by the Greeks.
In war the Asiatics seem never like the Greeks, to have worn either breast plates or greaves, but frequently a coat or jacket with sleeves, entirely of mail. A flap of mail frequently descended from under the helmet, to protect the neck and shoulders.
The chief defensive weapon of the Asiatics was the pelta or small shield in the form of a crescent; sometimes with and sometimes without its curved side divided by a point into twin concavities. The peculiar offensive weapons of the inhabitants of Asia were the bipennis, or double battle-axe, the club, and the bow and arrow, generally carried in two different partitions of the same case or quiver.
The Dacians, though inhabitants of the European shores of the Euxine, but near neighbours to, and probably of the same origin with the Asiatic nations here mentioned, seem to have deviated little from them in their costume. They wore their shoes or soles fastened with long strings, wound several times round the ancle; and their pantaloons very wide.
On the Trajan column not only many of the Dacian soldiers themselves, but even many of their horses, appear entirely enveloped in a coat of mail, or covering of small scales, tightly fitting the limbs. Their helmets are conical, and end in a sharp spike.
Many of the Asiatic nations were celebrated fro their constant use and skilful management of horses; and are often represented as fighting on horseback against Greeks on foot.
Costume of the Ancients vol I / Thomas HOPE
Coin:Dacia with draco on antoninianus of Trajan Decius, AD 250-251
* That's a Wolf-Head -SB.
Ancient Turkish "wolf head" standard found in Northern Kazakhstan (7-8 centuries).The original standard is in the Hermitage museum in St. Petersburg, Russia.
*Dacia people in Europe;
The Greeks referred to them as the Getae, comes from Massagetae / Getae...
Turkish Queen Tomris/Tomrys was a queen who reigned over the Massagetae, a Turkish people of Central Asia (Azerbaijan ), at approximately 530 BC. she "defeated and killed" the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great during his invasion and attempted conquest of her country. She built Tomi city in today's Romania.
Ancient Tomi - A city on the western shore of the Euxine (Black Sea) famous for being the place of Ovid's banishment. Ovid regarded Tomis as utterly remote from civilization (i.e. from Rome). Now the oldest city of Romania......by Jordanes (after Cassiodorus), who ascribes the foundation of the city to a Getae queen (The origin and deeds of the Goths): "After achieving this victory (against Cyrus the Great) and winning so much booty from her enemies, Queen Tomyris crossed over into that part of Moesia which is now called Lesser Scythia - a name borrowed from Great Scythia -, and built on the Moesian shore of the Black Sea the city of Tomi, named after herself."
Pliny the Elder, in his Naturalis Historia (Natural History), ca. 77–79 AD: "... though various races have occupied the adjacent shores; at one spot the Getae, by the Romans called Daci...".
* "Ister or Danubius, were called Hyperborei, Sauromatae and Arimaspi"
Strabo (1st c AD) :"Abar-Noi", that is Avar/Abar.
Abaris le Scythe ou l'Abaris Hyperboréen = Abaris der Hyperboreer = AVAR TURKS. Hyperborean Arimaspi = Arimaspi Scythians = TURKS
Daçya (Dacia) eski bir coğrafik isimdir. Daçyalıların yaşadıkları toprakları kapsar. Balkanlarda Kuzeyde Karpat dağları, Güneyde Tuna nehri, Batıda Tisa nehri, Doğuda ise Dinyester nehri ile sınırlıydı. bugünkü Romanya, Moldavya ve Ukrayna'nın bir bölümüne denk gelir. Traklara mensup olarak kabul edilir, Traklar da Türk kavmi olarak. Daçyalıların kültürü İskit Türklere tıpatıp benzer.
"Daçya, Grekçede Dakia, Türkçede dağlık ülke anlamına gelen regio Dacorum, Kral Decebal'ın (Decebale) trajik ölümü sırasında (MS.106), Türk Jasyge'ler ile sınırdaştı. Bu Desebal adı, dört yüz yıl sonra II.Justinus tarafından gönderilen elçi Zemargue-Zemark tarafından ziyaret edilen, Türklerin büyük hanı Disabul'u hatırlatıyor. İmparator Trayan, Daçya'da Roma kolonileri kurduğundan, Daçlar veya Daghis (Daglar-Dağlılar) bu sefer iyice teslim oldular; aynı kaderi paylşamaya zorlayan Alanlar, Kadlar, Getler ve Gotlar'ın istilalarının yarattığı terör nedeniyle, galiplerine daha da fazla bağlandılar. Bununla beraber, Daçya'da kolonilerin kurulmasından yüz altmış sene sonra, Gotlarla Trakya'da yapılan savaş sonrasında, kararsız kalan imparator Aurelien (270-275), Daçya'yı Gotlara bırakmak zorunda kaldı. Bölgede yaşayanları Moesia'ya taşıdı. Burası bu nedenle Aurelien'in Daçyası adını aldı. O günden itibaren, Tuna yeniden impartorluğun sınırı oldu. Böylece Romalılaşmış Daglar Gotlarla birlikte Hıristiyanlığı benimsemiş olarak, Tuna'nın karşı kıyısında kaldılar ve Osmanlıların gelişine kadar aralarında oluşan yeni milletin yasalarına uydular...Daçların kendileri de bu Türkçe adı, Mountagnis-Dağlılar olarak tercüme ediyorlar....Yiğit Daçlar Gotların soyundan olsalardı Gotları fetihlerinde yalnız bırakırlardı; Roma kökenli olsalardı, birbiri ardına gelen Barbar göçlerine katlanacaklarına, I.Konstantin, Konstans, Julien, Teodos veya Jüstinien dönemlerinde Roma'ya bağlanırlardı."
(Frank'lardan türeyen Fransa adını ele alırsak, Dakia, Trakia, Turkia isimleri temel alındığında, Dakların Deutsch (alman) olamıyacağı görülüyor) M.C.Paşa - Eski ve Modern Türkler
O dönem, İskit-Hun-Avar-Türklerinin de o bölgelerde yaşadığını hatırlayalım.
Trajan Sütunu'nda Dacia (Daçyalılar)'a ait "Kurt"
(Dağlı İskitler sonraki Taş-Oğuzlar'dır)
HAPPY NEW YEAR!