Okunev Culture - Turkish Culture
first half of 2nd millennium BC
in the National museum of Republic of Khakassia (HAKASYA)
and Minusinsky Regional History Museum
Materials on the ethnography. Volume IV, Vol. 2. L .: 1929.Sredi these numerous ancient monuments attract attention standing alone in the desert, or the components of the sculptures of the burial structure, known in the literature as "stone idols". This name is initially applied to the female statue in southern Russia, and then transferred to the Siberian monuments, although the latter, in most cases, have nothing to do with the figure of a woman. Especially strange to hear that typical Kirghiz steppes figure of a man with a mustache, armed with a sword, called "stone Baba." Turkish tribes Minusinskogo edge more individualized, these statues, calling them puss-Tash, Kizhi-tas, karadush-tas, kurtuyak-tas, etc., Which translated into Russian means: the girl-rock male rock hero-stone old-stone, etc. Among these monuments meets the figure of a man upright, but more often the image of only one person. Paul most statues are not defined, only in a few cases, you can more or less safe to say - a woman or a man shows the monument. Based on the above considerations, we call these monuments are not "broads", and stone statues...
All visiting Minusinsk edge researchers considered Askyzsky area "classic location of the stone idols", but now those would have to be considered in the neighborhood Ulus Charkovo p. Uibat, where there are 15 sculptures. Next, according to the riches Askyzo Esinsky area (11 sculptures). It is followed by a neighborhood street. Tazmina (9 Math.), River Tasheba (7 Math.), Ust-Birya (6 Math.), The top of p. Bigi (5 Math.), P. Black Yus (4 Math.), The estuary. Tubes (4 Math.), The neighborhood with. Senyavin (4 Math.), And finally, about 20 sculptures scattered in different places..... (ALL THESE NAMES ARE iN TURKiSH, samples - ASKYZ=AS KIZ (AS GiRL - AS TURKS) ; ULUS (NATiON) ; UST-BiRYA (UPPER BiRYA) note:SB)...
The exceptional wealth of the Minusinsk edge remnants of a bronze culture eclipsed him all the rest, and some researchers have attributed to Siberia all the monuments of antiquity prehistoric Bronze Age. Also, stone sculptures mechanically treated them to the same time 1. In general, on-time construction of stone sculptures there is a wide variety of opinions. It should, however, be noted that we are considering the type of statues in the literature, usually, does not stand out from the crowd of so-called "stone idols" and the name "Yenisei stone idols" are understood all types of statues found there. From a number of different studies on the subject (of dating) it should be noted only two of the most well-founded, it works DA Clemenza and NM Yadrintseva.
Clements 2 notes in constant contact with the graves of statues of late types that, in his opinion, "shows conclusively that" their value as gravestone monuments, and leads the testimony of Chinese chroniclers of the custom of the people Tukyu (VI cent. BC) put the image of the deceased on the grave stones and a number on the number of enemies killed. This practice, according to Clemenza could be borrowed from the older people and thus dates back to the VI. BC and earlier.
Yadrintsev 3 also considering stone images gravestone monuments, he notes that the Chinese chronicles detailing the practices of Khakassia, there is no indication about the custom to put stone women, hence they "belonged to the people preceded Khakassia, or who lived in the neighborhood with them." The appearance of stone sculptures Yadrintsev dates back to BC, the most recent of which, in his opinion, along with the Orkhon inscriptions.
If all of these views for most of the "stone idols" of Mongolia, Turkestan, Kirghiz, and the southern Russian steppes partially correct, then, with respect to the just considered type Minusinsk statues, no one of them can not agree, because nowhere in the Chinese annals there is no direct indications of the existence of stone statues and sculptures connection with the ancient Turkish inscriptions inscribed on them, and burials, on which they stand, raises some doubts. That's why in this essay will be appropriate to reconsider the history of stone sculptures Minusinskogo type and, as far as possible, to determine their place in the culture of the Minusinsk region.
Neither the style nor the machinery manufacturing statues do not give any indication of the time of their construction. The only way to determine their place in the chronology of the region - is the study of relationships with other monuments of ancient cultures namely, with burials in which they stand, and being found on them ancient Turkish inscriptions.
Sculptures of ancient inscriptions are rare. We only know three of these sculptures. One of them (Fig. 39) from the lake. Achikkul (!?) We know only schematic drawings Miller 1. Whether the inscription read this stone and what it means - we could not figure out. Unknown, too, and the fate of the monument. The other two sculptures (Fig. 28 and 36) stored in the Minusinsk Museum and inspected by us, at one time were studied Radlov and the text of their inscriptions translated into German 2. Both of these sculptures were first Uybatskoy in the wilderness, far from the street . Charkovo. Unfortunately, their relationship to the numerous tombstones of the area is now known as, take them to the IP Minusinsk Kuznetsov did not disclose any information about its original position and does not have the exact location.
A relatively small inscription on the sculpture are 36 dedicated to the "gallant father Alto." "I have raised this monument tarkhan people Ah" - writes the author of the inscription. "Because of his merits, he went out of the midst of his people (as ambassador) to the Kara-Khan."
Extensive inscription sculptures 28 places much erased; Although some lines of its half-lost, the general meaning of the inscription is clear. It describes the events in the life of the hero-Kapga Teng-Erdem and repeated usual for Yenisei tombstones formula: 'I parted "so-what" I could not stay "with so and so In this inscription mentions the name of the Turkish khan Tacham (Kudulu Khan) 3. Within the meaning of the inscription Radloff concludes that the inscription is dedicated athlete, proved once Tachamu military aid, and that subsequently Tacham, standing Turkish Khan built this monument to him. If this assumption is correct, the notice shall be attributed to the end of the VII century., When after 683, the dominion of the Turkish khan was broken Kudulu Khan (Tachamom).
It would seem that the question of temporary structures considered Uybatskih sculptures, and, consequently, all the like, is allowed. They should refer to the time around VII century. AD and are tombstones. However, certain facts lead to refrain from such a definition.
All known Minusinsk steppes of ancient Turkish inscriptions are in content gravestone. Only two inscriptions made on the rocks (one on the White Yuce and the other near the Sulekova street.), Are perhaps an exception in this regard. The inscriptions were made, for the most part, standing on the rocks in the desert, and only in three cases they are applied on the rocks. Unfortunately, most of the stones with inscriptions taken away from their original location, and now it is not known on what they were graves. This information is only available for 4 inscriptions. One of them was on the river. Tasheba, on the mound, Heikel'em excavated in 1889, 1. The inscription is made on one of the stones, standing at the base of the mound. Among these stones was a statue (Fig. 31). This mound, judging by the objects found in it, should be attributed to the time close to the era of the ancient Turkish alphabet on the Yenisei. Another inscription is carved in stone, situated on the west side of a large mound near the village. Tes on the river. Touba. This mound was excavated in 1889 Aspelin'om 2. Judging by the nature of the funeral facilities and found it subjects the mound should refer to the end of the set SA Teploukhov, Minusinsk Kurgan culture, ie, to the first centuries of our era (Talgren dates this mound III-IV centuries AD.).
Finally, two inscriptions were at the bottom of embankment mounds excavated AV Adrianov 3 at p. Uibat. One inscription mound number 1 in the group Uzun Oba, and the other - the mound number 1 group Kara Kurgen. Both of these must also be barrow Minusinsk attributed to the end of the Kurgan culture, only a few early Tesinskogo mound. Thus, VII century gravestone inscriptions found on tombs of different epochs. In Kara-Kurgene on the grave of the first centuries AD, we find later inscription: "balbal (ie monument) Kashuk'a." A similar inscription read on a rock on the coast Tuba: "My country Edil balbal" (ie monument). All this goes to show that the inscriptions were made on the first available stone or rock with a smooth surface and that they are not tombstones in the literal sense of the word, as put to the tomb of the hero, after whom they were written. No wonder that, when Finding a convenient place for an inscription, the choice can sometimes fall to the ancient statue, which the plane always smooth hewn. Thus, the sculptures have nothing to make them inscriptions. This is confirmed and some other facts.
Careful consideration Uybatskih sculptures with Turkish inscriptions (Fig. 28 and 36) suggests the following circumstances. At that time, as the contours of the face with all its attributes to make an accurate, deep vyshlifovannoy line inscriptions in quite casually and superficially some cutting instrument. Moreover, in those places where the inscription and image overlap each other, it is clear that the drawing was preceded by an inscription, as the letter caused a slight touch, are on the surface of the grooves (lines), forming a figure sculptures. In addition, the location of the inscriptions can not be reconciled with the figure sculptures. Some lines it covers a wavy line extending upward from the forehead and on one stone inscription comes even on the face. All of this points to the fact that the inscription and the picture are not simultaneous, and, of course, the inscription later.
Stones, standing in the Minusinsk steppes for centuries, are exposed to a variety of destructive actions. In this respect, a role played by grazing cattle in the desert, which has a habit of rubbing against the rocks. Animals, took a fancy yourself a few stones, rubbing against them, and as a result of this centuries-old work of all the irregularities of the stone at a height of 80-130 cm. From the ground smoothed out, and its surface is smooth buffed. Such actions apparently undergone a statue 36. It is interesting to note that while the surface of the stone faces above strongly flattened, and drawing a wavy line in some places completely erased, letter writing, deposited thin strokes, in the same place prered distinguishable 1. This can be explained only by the fact that the statue, stood a fairly large amount of time in the wilderness, had influenced the rubbing of his animals flatten considerably, and only if it was on the inscription.
Thus, consideration of the Yenisei inscriptions again convinces us that they have nothing to do with the statues do not have, therefore, can not date them, and that the statues of ancient inscriptions made on them.
Most of the sculptures located on the mounds and tombs. Involuntarily a question - whether they are connected with any known types of burials and can not be there, so what that dated to a certain cultural era? It turns out that not all types of tombstones found sculptures. There are a number of burials in which they have never met, and, conversely, some types of burial structures are often accompanied them.
For a more clear understanding types of mounds and tombs, on which there are sculptures, it is appropriate to quote here gravestones characteristic structures of different cultural epochs, worked out during many years of research SA Teploukhov. They adopted the scheme of evolution of funeral rites of ancient cultures Minusinskogo edge makes it possible to sort out the numerous forms of gravestone constructions almost entirely covers the Minusinsk steppes.
Burials Chalcolithic (afanasevo culture) and early Bronze Age cultures (Andronovo and Karasuk) under this scheme - flat or barely rising above the surrounding land in bulk. These standing stones have no burial. Also sculptures of stone are never found. These burials, we will not dwell. Burial Phase I Minusinskaya Kurgan culture, flat or with a small mound, surrounded by a wall of quadrangular dug into the ground and barely rising above the surface of the plate. In the corners of the fence are stone slabs, focused on narrow edges of NO and SW, and wide on SO or NW with some deviations in either direction.
Burials of stage II Minusinskaya Kurgan culture are arranged in the same way as the previous, only slightly larger in size, and in addition to the angular stones are still on one plate to the north-western and south-eastern sides of the fence and one or two on opposite sides. In addition, sometimes there are 2 or 3 boards to the north-eastern side of the fence ("lighthouse").
Burials III and IV stage Minusinsk culture on the device are similar to prediduschemu, but much larger in magnitude. In addition to the angular stones on the north-western and south-eastern sides of the fence is two or more boards and the appropriate number of plates on opposite sides. Also part of the "beacons" Burials Tashtyk culture (first century BC) have the form of pits, near which is sometimes a number of standing stones (from 5 to 40 stones).
For the time from V to X centuries. BC characterized by the burial mound with a stone. Newer ones are decorated at the base of chetyrёugolniku standing stones. In more recent graves, or they are not available or there is only one standing somewhere at the base of the mound, the stone. Burials of the late iron age cultures flat, without standing stones. They are stone sculptures have never met.
Stone statues did not occur at the earliest burials of the Bronze culture (Andronovo and Karasuk). SA Teploukhov told us that about art. Shira has a stone statue, like number 48 and standing at the grave of Phase I Minusinskaya Kurgan culture. 22 sculptures are also on the burial of Phase I of the Kurgan culture (?). Sculptures of 7, 17, 18, 20, 46, 47, 48 are on the graves of stage II (some of them maybe on the graves of Phase I) Minusinsk Kurgan culture. Statues 13, 25 and 30 are at the mounds III or stage IV of the same culture. Further, sculptures 4 and 11 - in facilities Tashtyk culture. Finally, the comparatively large number, namely 18 statues 1, on the graves of the Stone graves (Fig. 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 19, 29, 41, 42, 45).
So, starting with stage I Minusinskaya Kurgan culture, sculptures found in all types of gravestone constructions having in its structure standing stones and capture, so a huge amount of time, not less than one and a half thousand years, and a number of cultural epochs. It is as if, contrary to the above assumption that the sculptures belong to the same cultural epoch limited, comparatively short period of time. Yet, it would be strange to assume that the so-very stylish Minusinsk sculptures in all its manifold forms could live for a number of cultural epochs. If you look at the accompanying table, there is a new bewilderment. Why the same form, sometimes completely identical, there are the graves of different ages 2, and, conversely, for the burial of the same era are various sculptures? 1 What is the explanation? Let's try to consider carefully the conditions for finding statues in burial facilities.
Gravestone construction Minusinsk steppes extremely characteristic of the correctness of their buildings. Along the walls of a rectangular fence in an orderly arranged facing the plate. Often they are matched in size and shape and strictly oriented relative to the cardinal points, thereby forming a symmetric shape. If we sometimes observe some irregularities in the number of plates, their size or shape, it mostly be attributed to the ravages of time. If a stone statue standing on the grave, was a monument to the man buried here, it would seem, he had to take a certain position in the construction of burial structure. The observations show the opposite. Sculptures never takes a special, central place, and is always one of ordinary plates. Often it is as a corner stone (Math. 7, 15, 16,17, 20, 30, 45 and 48), in other cases, it replaces the stones, standing along the fence (Math. 8, 9, 10, 18, 25, 46 and 47), or one of the plates standing in front of the mound (the lighthouse, number 13). At that time, all the plates gravestones facilities strictly oriented with respect to the cardinal points, sculptures, for that matter, are as horrible 2. Most of them are facing the person to NO or vice versa, to SW. This is in connection with the general orientation of the entire burial structure, where all the plates facing narrow faces on NO and SW. Finally, it is especially interested in those cases when standing at the grave of the statue is in the inverted position. Minusinsk region known 4 sculptures set upside down - namely, 2, 13, 30 (or in the text of Fig. 8) and 51.
Such indiscriminate and random position on the sculptures gravestones says, as if a careless handling of the people, put them on their grave. Neglect in the construction of the tombs to the images carved on the plate, can be explained only by the fact that for people to put them on the grave, they did not constitute the object of worship, and there were only stones left in the steppes of the former inhabitants of the region, and served as a simple material for the construction of the fence grave. It seems that, both now and in the past, the population is widely used by the ancient monument to the material of the device of their graves 1 and for different economic needs.
Confirmation of this assumption may serve as a slab with carved human figures on it, standing on the mound about Tazmina district. Such human figures are common on tombstones, but especially the described plate is that all these figures are depicted upside down, with all of them located in the lower part of the plate so that some of them proved to be buried in the ground. In this situation the stone, they could not be carved on it. Undoubtedly, this slab was once at a position opposite to the present, and if it were made on the images.
If we accept the idea that the production of statues does not belong to the nations, to put them on the grave as the boards of the fence, that these monuments are alien to them, we come to the conclusion that the sculptures of ancient of all the graves in which they are located, that is ancient Minusinskaya Kurgan culture. Considering Minusinskuyu top Kurgan culture department and the beginning of the Bronze Age culture of iron, we thus define the statues as monuments of the Bronze Age Minusinsk region.
This is confirmed by an interesting discovery in the village. Znamenka. In 1904, AV Adrianov 1 learned of the accidental excavations of ancient tombs in the estate of a farmer. The tomb was a tomb built of slabs. It was found about 70 bronze beads, a bronze knife and clay pot 2. plate, served tire coffin proved fragment statues Minusinskogo conventional type (Fig. 21) 3.
The history of this plate is of great interest. Undoubtedly, when she stood in the steppe, and for some time exposed to the corrosive effects of the atmosphere and, perhaps, humans. Over time, the origin and destination it has managed to blot out the memory of the people inhabiting the edge. The monument is not revered. On it for fun, or for other reasons, cut out different shapes (pictures of animals, carriages, etc.), And finally, he was already in the broken form serves as a prime material for the construction of the grave. Sure, it's a statue there long, perhaps for several centuries before the construction of tombs excavated in Znamenka. That is why the dating of this tomb is of great importance for the history Minusinsk sculptures.
Found in the tomb of copper beads and a knife point to its affiliation to the Bronze Age. Unfortunately, without knowing the types of objects, it is not possible to date the tomb more precisely. One can only assume that it is, in all likelihood, by the time until the first stage of the Minusinsk Kurgan culture.
The nature of the burial structure also does not give a precise indication of the time of construction of the grave as the coffin of stone slabs found, since Andronov Culture. Yet, it should be noted that in the graves Andronov and karasuk culture plates are always subtle. Massive slabs appear only on the first phase of the Minusinsk Kurgan culture. So burial Znamenka covered the massive stove - statue, should be attributed to the time until the first stage of the Minusinsk Kurgan culture. From the third stage of the Kurgan culture, the main tomb mound always a log house. Only in the side of the children's graves are sometimes found with walls lined with stone slabs 4.
Thus, the burial of Znamenskoye likely refers to the first or second stage of Minusinsk Kurgan culture. Consequently, the statue should be attributed to the time that preceded the era.
You can, therefore, assume that during the construction of the Kurgan culture sculptures preceded or coincided with the 1st stage of the Kurgan culture, less likely. The probability of all statues be attributed Karasuk culture. (By SA Teploukhova - while close to 1000 BC). By the time more ancient sculptures can not be classified as manufacturing them requires a massive metal tools, what could hardly be in the initial stages of the Bronze Age.
Minusinsk region in large numbers found chisel tools. Some of them have a very narrow but massive blade 1. Over the massiveness and the frequent failure of these tools suggest that they were used to work on the stone, maybe for otёsyvaniya and engraving plates. Drill with a concave blade 2 could be used to align the semicircular grooves, forming a pattern on the sculptures. Unfortunately, the time of existence of bronze bits can not yet be accurately determined. We can only point out that one such bit concave blade was found in the Saratov province. in the famous Pine-Mazinskom clade 3, which time corresponds to approximately Karasuk culture in the Minusinsk region.
By studying the characteristics of style statues, we could not find exact analogies among other monuments of antiquity, nor in Minusinsk territory or outside it 4.
Apparently, a material property, require special processing techniques, led to the emergence of a new, distinctive interpretation of the forms did not occur, for example, among the many metal products.
Also, the plot sculptures (human face with symbolic signs) does not appear among the other monuments of antiquity.
It may be noted only schematic representations of human faces on one of the inscriptions Minusinskogo edge (its exact location is unknown) is quite similar to the face image on the sculptures (see Fig. 9 in the text). Dash across the face, bracketed on this feature and vertical lines on the forehead - these characteristics, there is no doubt that the uniformity of these images with images on statues. The fact that the image of the face on pisanitsa made different technique (knockout sharp instrument), than a statue, and that they are located among the other figures related to the relatively late time, suggests a different meaning of these images, and perhaps another time their faces. It would not be strange if it turns out that images of faces on pisanitsa made much later sculptures are the product of some idle shepherd carving on a rock along with other figures and images of faces, imitating thus the forms of what he saw in the desert on the sculptures. Another analogy we do not find. This is probably explained by the special purpose of the statues. Monumental memorials, canonical image and, of course, symbolic signs (a circle with corners, a trait through the nose and many others) - all this speaks of its religious significance. Settled opinion considers their tombstones can be true of so-called "stone the women" Kyrgyz and Mongolian steppes, Minusinsk the statues of the type described, refer to the tombstones there is no reason, as we have already seen that in any one instance can not establish a direct link sculptures with some burial.
Furthermore, they are sometimes quite independently, away from any graves (e.g., sculptures Fig. 3, 14, 24, 32, 35 and 38). Most likely they were the image of the deity. In this case, it becomes clear image of the head and ram occurring on some sculptures. In the life of the peoples of the Bronze Age ram he played probably the biggest role, as in the tombs of this period are always sheep bones. The existence of the ancient inhabitants of the edge of the cult of the ram indicate also finds of stone statues depicting the whole shape of the animal. However, without a good reproduction of similar figures (Fig. 56, 57), we do not dare to claim that they belong to the same epoch of the Middle Bronze Age, like those statues, which are still riveted our attention. Figure 59 is made with pieces of red sandstone sheep stored in Barnaul Museum. Unfortunately, no information about its origin in the Museum was not. The material of the monument, which is characteristic for the Minusinsk region, suggests that the sculpture comes from the same place. Perhaps this is one of those sheep, which says Radloff, an excerpt from the diary Messerschmidt and Miller (see. Explanations to the table).
In the literature, there are indications that, in addition to sheep, in the Minusinsk steppes are images of bulls, bears, lions and leopards 1.  Probably because they are now a few have survived, as the authors point out that some of the monuments, being taken away from the field They died or were lost, we were also in their frequent trips to the edge only managed to see the horse's head, probably representing a fragment of a large statue. Not a single picture with statues of animals, other than the head of a predator stored in Krasnoyarsk (Fig. 58 or in the text of Fig. 10), and the already mentioned sculptures of sheep, we failed to do 2.
Types sculptures typical of the region.
The above does not exhaust all the material wealth Minusinsk steppe stone sculptures. There are several, but the nature of them is quite different. First of all, you need to specify a statue, known for drawing in 1739 surveyor Ivan Shishkov (Fig. 64). It was located on the Black Yuce against the mouth of the river. Sarala and the local population was called Hosen Hys -zayats-girl that probably spelled wrong, since this figure is not in any way resembles a hare. Another name Kazan Kizhi tas (or tash), much more accurately. His translation of "Stone man with a pot" has, it seems, gave Popov.
Unfortunately, this interesting monument was killed and died for a long time, since no questioning the local population did not give indications of his whereabouts. I had only heard vague memories that the head was broken off and taken away by someone, and then disappeared and the rest. Statue of a man holding a crook in his right hand a vessel resembling the silver vessels found in the Minusinsk region 1, and the left hand holds the scimitar or sword. On the belt, decorated with cross bars, suspended three objects of unknown purpose, apparently, handbags. The image of the earth some strange waves, resembling an old splint image sabers, as if coming out of the plane of the stone, everything indicates a small experience of the author in the drawing, and he himself recognized in the report Tatischev "Although railway discharge the same patterns will not be very serviceable, I humbly beg you not angry, because in the art of painting do not have. " Because of this it is impossible to draw any conclusions about the art sculptures. Yet it is clear common type.
These sculptures are widely distributed within the Kirghiz steppes, Altai and Turkestan. Typical representatives thereof are sculptures depicted in Fig. 65 and 66. Monument 65 in technique is one of the best things of this kind. All the details clearly, accurately and very well rounded sculpted low relief, but the right hand still retains the character of flatness. Of course, on any face of portrait of this type, however. Typical posture and details are canon image of a man (probably Turkish) tribe.
In addition to Fig. Shishkov has yet to specify Radlov of other similar statue is located on the river. Tuim (Minusinsk region). This statue was taken to Krasnoyarsk and head on the road broke off. Where is it now - is unknown.
Individuality finds statues of its kind in the province Minusinskom 2 and their abundance in the western provinces say that Minusinsky edge was only the periphery of the spread of this type.
Sinyavinskaya statue (fig. 60 or in the text of Fig. 11), is also of a circular sculpture is a different iconographic character. The sword is missing, and the vessel is in both hands, folded on his chest.
This is the Tes-Erbinsky "hero-stone", but the execution of its much more primitive (Fig. 61). It is a flat plate, hewn in the form of a human figure, one side of which are carved the ancient Turkish writings, on the other - light relief (judging by the picture, the resulted from Radloff) male face with a mustache and hands holding the vessel.
If both is given in the sculptures of the same species are known in large numbers in the Tannu-Tuva Republic (Uriangkhai) (Fig. 62 and 63), Mongolia, the Kyrgyz steppes, su, and Altai Krai Minusinsk then they are the only ones. Salbyksky "Grandfather Rock" (Fig. 70) has the form of a long rectangular in cross-section bar, at the top end of which is depicted person. The eyes, eyebrows, and the bar over them made incised line. Cheeks - in the form of circles, the nose and the vessel was placed directly under him, slightly embossed.
This image has no analogues in Minusinsk territory, but are found in other places, for example. Altai.
Figure 73 without the person outlines depicting only the eyes, nose in a loop and a small mouth is also known in the Altai. A similar but even more primitive image, lacking even the mouth available in Mongolia.
Figures 71 and 72, we will not stop, because the first could not see, and it some particularly difficult to install on a photo, make an unconditional refrain from assigning it to a group of typical Minusinsk; The second chip is not giving anything definite. But especially attracted attention last two monuments (Fig. 67 and 68), which gives figures Spassky. Statues depict a man and a woman. Once they were in the desert, near the Askyza, but then were transported to the village, and what their fate is currently unknown. They certainly belong to the group of those statues, which depicts a human figure with folded "up" legs and hands holding the vessel. This type is very small in number, but widely distributed. Such sites are known in the Altai, in the Seven Rivers and Tannu Tuva Republic, (Fig. 69). The latter is particularly interesting drawings of vessels, representing the so-called "Scythian cauldrons," or copy them clay vessels. Such vessels found, for example, in the Aspelin Tesinskom mound date back no later than III-IV centuries. BC 1. This suggests that the statues of the type described are approximately to the same time.
The bulk of the Minusinsk sculptures is a distinct group of monuments which do not occur outside the region. Ancient Turkish gravestone inscriptions makes first got into rock steppes, no relation to the statues do not have and can not date them. On the mounds of different eras late bronze and iron sculptures fall crops just as a material. They are these ancient mounds. Time structures sculptures refers most likely to the Middle Bronze Age, ie Karasuk to culture (for Teploukhova about 1000 BC).
Encountered in the Minusinsk steppes full human figure sculptures - "stone woman" - not typical for the region, they are inherent in other areas. For example, a male figure with a vessel in his right hand and a sword in the left wide-spread in the Altai, in Turkestan and the Kirghiz steppes, in the Minusinsk region represented by a single statue. Sculptures from the receptacle in both hands, characteristic of other areas, namely Tannu Tuva Republic and Mongolia adjacent part of the Altai and Kirghiz steppes. About the different types of the Mongolian, Turkestan and South Siberian sculptures, we hope to talk too much.
In our work we often use the advice and instructions of SA Teploukhova and SE Malova, for which he gives them our sincere gratitude.
M. Gryaznov, E. Schneider.
google translate from russia
1. (Adrianov, A.B.). Preliminary data on collecting inscriptions in Minusinsk territory in the summer of 1904, seconded by the Committee A. Adrianov. Math. Russian. Com. for the study. Avg. and East. Asia in 1904
2. Adrian A. Journey to the Altai and Sayan, committed in 1881 Zap.R.G.O. by common geography, ie. X, 1888.
3. Aspelin, S.R. Antiquités du nord Finnoougrien. Helsingfors, 1877-1884.
4. Bayer, Th.S. Vertus inscriptio Prussica Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanae. Tomus II. Petropoli, 1729. (Used by Radloff - 35).
5. Bogolyubskii, IS The study of antiquities of Minusinsk District, Yenisei Province. 1881 I. V.S.O.R.G.O. XIII, № 3, 1882.
6. Chantre, E.Recherches anthropologiques dans le Caucase. Paris - Lion, 1885.
7. Geykel, GK From the Finnish archaeological literature. Math. Archaeological. Com. Vol. 38, 1911.
8. Falk, I.P. Beiträge zur topographischen Kenntniss der Russ Reichs. Petersb. 1785.
9. Gmelin, I.G. Reise durch Sibirien. Göttingen, 1752. (Used by Radloff - 35).
10. H (eikel), A. Déchiffrement des inscriptions de l'Orkhon et de l'Enissei. Finskt Museum, I, 1. 1894.
11. Heikel, A.O. Die Grabunterscuhungen und Funde bei Tascheba. Journal de la Société Finl. d'Archéol. XXVI, 1912.
12. Inscriptions de l'Enissei recueillies et publiées par la Société Finlandaise d'Archéologie. Helsingfors, 1889.
13. Gastrén, M.A. Reisenberichte und Briefe. St.-Petersb. 1856.
14. Klaproth, M.I. Mémoires, relatifs à l'Asie, contennants des recherches historiques, géographiques et philologiques sur les Peuples de l'Orient. Paris, 1826.
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link for the photos