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26 Şubat 2016 Cuma

Taştık, Yenisey, Kırgız, Hun Kurganları








The images of soldiers on planks crypt number 1 burial Teps III. 1, 3 - 7 strap; 2 - strip 6; 4, 7 - the bracket 3; 5 - 5 lath; 6 - 1 strap




Hun-Scythian-Turk in Tashtyk





1. Art post Scythian time that is, to the territory of Tuva Hun-Sarmatian period, It is of great interest for understanding the overall genetic development of the culture of the nomads of the steppe regions of the eastern zone. Chronologically, the specified period is between two important eras - Scythian and ancient Turkic, which gives special importance to the issues of cultural continuity. Art of this period little studied, represented mainly by the applied nature of the subject, and, as a rule, ceremonial purposes. All of them are inherent features of Scythian art.


2. In this connection, great interest two pairs of bone lining the middle of a complex bow, Point of interest in recent years in Central Tuva One (Fig. 1) is derived from the repository of the Kara-Dag, the other (Fig. 2) from the burial Aymyrlyg. Both pairs of single graves with characteristic Hun-Sarmatian time ritual burial and accompanying equipment. The burial of the Kara-Dag (Turkish; Black Mountain-SB) it accompanies clay pot type, has obvious similarities with ceramics Huns, known as the territory of Trans-Baikal, as well as in Mongolia.


3. On both pairs of pads, judging from the surviving fragments, depicted hunting scenes, made a fine line to be cut, the style of these images previously on the territory of Tuva is not known. The closest analogy to them, In our opinion, can be wooden plates of burial Teps III (Krasnoyarsk Territory), although it is worth to point out their nonequivalence. There we have a large multi-figure compositions, here the small scenes, but nevertheless it seems legitimate to talk about the common style of these images, point out in particular zashtrihovku body of horse and deer antlers interpretation Karadag image.


4. Considered lining relate to an earlier time than tepseyskie signs and apparently reflect an earlier form of development is now looming trends in fine art post Scythian time. There is reason to believe These findings are the beginning of a series of items with similar images. It is possible in the future to trace some of the trends in the evolution of art of ancient nomads of the Middle Ages.








Fig.1.The cemetery of the Kara-Dag. Fig. 2. Burial Aymyrlyg.
Bone lining composite bow from Central Tuva.



New monuments of the fine arts after the Scythian period of the Central Tuva.
// Problems of the Scythian-Siberian cultural and historical unity.
Kemerovo: 1979, pp 145-147.(google translate from Russia)



















Teps III

Compact group at different times and different nature monuments located along the terrace above the floodplain strip, the length of which is 160, width of 30 m (Fig. 3). This grave and podgornovskogo tesinskogo stages Tagar culture, tombs, children's graves and pits with offerings Tashtyk memorial culture, the graves of the Kyrgyz-time. 


On the surface of the terraces were clearly visible two large Tashtyk crypt and one small, were on the most elevated points of the terrace and has a dominant position in the cemetery. Around them it has many graves in the form of circles or rings formed by outcrop rocks. Often, in the middle there was a slight decrease, sometimes free of stones - rings. On the periphery of such burial ring freely located at some distance from one another and are each separately visible, while in the central part are clustered, overlapping each other. At the periphery of each individual it has been opened tomb excavation, and around the crypts studied one large continuous excavation. When attempting to open some small grave excavations inevitably affects other tombs and pits with a memorial offerings, features on the surface of which were absent.


The southern part of the burial ground was flat. There were several vertically set slabs up to 1.5 m, and could see many of the top edges of the plates. Any order in the arrangement of plates could not be traced visually. Excavations also showed that some boards were pitted with memorial offerings Tashtyk time. Such plates, but in smaller quantities, and discovered elsewhere repository.


During the work in paragraph Teps III were discovered and studied memorials 7 different cultural and historical periods - from the Chalcolithic to early medieval times. Chronologically resulting material can be classified as follows:


1. Afanasyevskaya culture: a fragment of a stone beater found about 28 graves.
2. Kamennolozhsky stage Karasuk culture: fragments of pottery found during excavations of graves 9 and 11 Kyrgyz time.
3. Podgornovsky stage Tagar culture graves 13, 35, 38, 62 and a bronze awl, identified during the excavation of the grave 9 Askizsky culture (Figure 4 as well.).
4. Bidzhinsky stage Tagar culture: a fragment of a clay vessel, met during the excavation of the graves 22 and 23 Tashtyk culture (Figure 4b.).
5. Tesinsky stage Tagar culture graves 16, 24, 25, and a fragment of a clay vessel unearthed graves 9 Askizsky culture (Figure 4 as well.).
6. Tashtyk culture (tepseysky stage): two large and one small crypts; 38 graves (4, 8, 12, 17, 22-24, 26 - 29, 34, 37, 39-65); pits with a memorial offerings found during the excavation of the graves 14, 28, 32, 33 Kyrgyz time and in paragraphs A and B; Fragments of pottery encountered in the excavation of the tomb of the Kyrgyz 36 time (Figure 4b, c).
7. Kyrgyzskoe time grave 1-4, 6-12, 14, 15, 18, 19, 27, 28, 30-33, 36, 44, 50, 67 (Fig 4 in.).


In some cases, due to the failure of the material was difficult to decide, it refers to the grave Tashtyk culture or to the Kyrgyz-time. However, in all such cases, the decision was made, and the graves were distributed to the respective periods. If in due course it will be possible to detect and correct errors, material changes in our cultural and historical construction of this will not make as monuments considered too poor information.






Fig. 1. Archaeological neighborhood Teps before excavation (1968):
1 - general view of the southern part of (I, II, III ... - items T.I excavation, T.II, T.III ...): 2 - Teps III, pominalnik; 3 - Teps III, Kyrgyz children's grave 8.

The complex of archaeological monuments at Mount Teps on the Yenisei/ Novosibirsk, 1979, 167 p. google translate from Russia










Teps III. Drawing on a charred strip of Tashtypsky crypt.


Teps III. Drawing on a charred strip of Tasty Sky crypt.







Barely visible on the surface of the monuments of different types and different epochs are located on a narrow terrace above the floodplain Yenisei leaning against the steep mountainside Teps, on the rocks in a variety of which are ancient Turkic inscriptions and drawings. It worked three companies Krasnoyarsk expedition. Rannetagarsky squad investigated a series of mounds podgornovskogo stage and some other periods. Kamensky squad copied carved on the rocks pictures and inscriptions. Karasuk squad to focus on the excavation of burial Tashtyk culture and, moreover, examined a series of monuments from different eras. In general, in the area above the floodplain terraces length of 500 meters to explore the numerous graves of 11 consecutive periods, and on the edge of the meadow adjacent terraces - the remains of settlements of two epochs.


Excavations circular stone wall Afanasiev culture in paragraph VII Teps found two graves - collective and individual, usually a device burial facilities for burial rite and inventory: egg-shaped pots and decorative horny studs. New excavations in the given parking point Teps X. cultural layer lies at a depth of 2.5 m is almost directly on the gravels. Covering an area of ​​90 sq opened two centers and several fireplaces. Found typically Athanasian shards, bones of domestic animals (cow, sheep, horse), stone and iron is polished ax. Pockets are like in-depth into the ground bowl with a diameter of about 1 m, 20 cm deep, lined with stone tiles on the walls. Such lesions are associated with cooking is not on fire, but in the hot ashes with sand, which corresponds to the shape and ostrodonnaya vessels.


Four fences Karasuk culture in paragraph VIII Teps interesting stratigraphic observations. All of them are robbed, many years after burial (after complete decomposition of corpses), and then the mound was built saragashenskogo stage, put on top of a fence which disturbed the robbers cover the grave. So, robbery Karasuk graves produced in antiquity, in the XI-V centuries. BC.


Kurgan saragashenskogo stage (IV-III centuries BC.), The so-called vosmikamenny contained in the center of the two collective graves and around them several children. At 3 and 15 m from it found another two collective graves saragashenskogo stage, had no gravestone constructions. In one of them were buried the bones of three people - not the bodies and bones. The bones of an adult male are laid in the grave in anatomical order, but with a few mistakes. The bones of two children four and five years of age stacked in two piles. All three were killed by blows to the head and a bronze chisel tetrahedral tip. When a man found a pot and a bronze knife.


Graves tesinskogo stage (II-I centuries BC.) Met as the inlet to the mound saragashenskogo stage, and in the form of separate ground graves. One of the last discovered under the fence Tashtyk crypt and it is resting on a dirt Tashtyk grave. This is confirmed by a chronological sequence of steps Saragash - Tes - Tashtyk. Tomb in paragraph VII Teps interesting finding in her bronze buckles with a picture of the head of the Saiga, lace and other metal plates, iron dagger in a sheath covered in black varnish with a red stripe.


Chaatas Kyrgyz and Kyrgyz series of stone tombs in paragraphs Teps XI and III contain the usual stuff. Interesting burying warriors with osёdlannym horse and the grave, where one pit buried the ashes of burnt man in the other - the ashes of a horse. Fully excavated a small cemetery Teps II pre-Mongol times (XI-XII centuries. BC). His nine graves with ceramics and iron things light very poorly studied period on the Yenisei.


The most varied and gave the new material a complex of monuments in the cemetery Tashtyk culture Teps III. Crypt excavated large (50 square meters), which contained the burial of a few dozen people. Crypt burned. Besides the usual bronze and iron objects (buckles, paired heads of horses, chains, etc.), Ceramic, plaster byustovyh masks, it preserved bark purse wooden charred trough, barrel wine (?), Two large statues of deer, of the wooden boxes and capillaries, strips with images on them, and various other things. In a small crypt (16 square meters) were also plaster masks of different shapes pottery, bark tues, bronze buckle and head of horses and, in addition, a lot of sheep and cow heel astragalus (talus and calcaneus in the joint). About crypts excavated a series of children's graves with the same ceramic as in the tombs, sometimes with iron and horny things. Among the graves, and in a separate area to the south of the crypts excavated a large number of holes with a memorial offerings: One-pot and a few pieces of beef or lamb. Finally, on the edge of the meadow terrace investigated the cultural layer of the settlement.


Completely new was the discovery of a large crypt charred planks with preserved them multi-figure compositions. Trims up to 1 m, a width of 6-12 cm with a handle at one end, covered with subtle delicate drawings, cut the edge of the knife. On one side of the strap is usually depicted running deer, moose, bears, wolves and other animals, on the other - compositions on the theme, apparently, the heroic epic and historical novels. Shown horsemen and foot soldiers with bows and arrows, sometimes in combat armor. They run, shoot, race horses, fell wounded. Presents a picture of the battle, theft recovery, chase, battle on the boat and others, most of us are not yet understood. Surviving on planks figures are, of course, only the contours of the former here polychrome images. It is the oldest in Asia miniatures (II-VI cent. BC), stylistically quite peculiar. They left the company, did not have yet either public or written language, while all known ancient miniatures and murals of heroic themes were created in a class society, the State, with the development of writing and literature.


MP Grjaznov, MN Komarova
// AB 1968. M .: 1969. pp 176-179. google tr.from Russia














Fig. VIII. Sadaqa "early-type" in the monuments of the first half of I millennium:
1 - Niya, burial 8 [on: The Institute ..., 2000]; 2 - The cave artists [on: Le Coq, 1925]; 3 - Kumtura, mural fragment [by: Caves of the Thousand Buddhas ..., 2008]; 4 - Orlatsky repository [on: Nikonorov, Khudyakov, 1999]; 5 - Tongue-and-Sarvak approx. 200 g [on: Ghirshman, 1962]; 6 - relief fragment from the stele Afeni [on: Desyatchikov 1972].



Fig. VI. Tattoos on the mummy of a man Oglahtinskogo burial ground (4 m.), Infrared photography:
1 - on the back; 2 - on the chest; 3 - on the left hand; 4 - on the right hand [by: Kyzlasov, Pankov, 2004].



Fig. X. Quivers with protruding rear wall and frame-frames:
1 - Tashtyk engraving (Teps Sq 4, 6; Tasheba, 1 sq..); 2, 3 - curly frame quivers of M. Pereshchepino and Bochy [on: Zalesskaya et al, 1997;. Tóth, Horváth, 1992]; 4 - Kamtyttukem [on: Savin, Semenov, 1997]; 5 - Hocho, drawing with painting the IX. [By: Le Coq, 1925].



Fig. V. Realities of the first group of soldiers and comparable materials from Tashtyk monuments:
2-4, 7-8, 10 - Tashtyk engraving (Teps, Tasheba); 1 - model on (photo author); 5, 9 - tattoos [on: Kyzlasov, Pankov, 2004; Pankov, 2005]; 6 - cap [on: Pankov et al., 2010].
1, 5, 6, 9 - Oglahtinsky burial, m 4..



Fig. III. Warriors of the third group in Tashtyk miniatures:
1 - Teps, 2-3 - Tasheba


Fig. II. Warriors of the second group in Tashtyk miniatures:
1-7 - Teps, 8-9 - Tasheba.


Fig. I. The soldiers first group Tashtyk miniatures:
1-3 - Teps, 4-5 - Tasheba.


Fig. XIII. Images of Turks (haircut)
1-3 - with a funeral couch An Tse [on: Anjia Tomb ..., 2003]; 4 - funerary statuette of 550-577 years. [By: Stark, 2008]; 5 - Pile, painting of Maya Cave-III [by: Yatsenko, 2009]; 6 - on the sarcophagus Yu Hon [on: Yatsenko, 2009]; 7-9 - Altai, rock engraving [on: Kubarev, 2005]; 10 - Engraving fragment from the 20th Shilovsky repository [on: Bagautdinov et al., 1998]..
Source:
SV Pankov
// The ancient art in the mirror of archeology. On the 70th anniversary of the DG Savinova.

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