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USSR Academy of Sciences
Institute of History, Philology and Philosophy
Ancient Turkic sculptures Altai
Ancient memorial buildings have received in the scientific literature the name of the ancient Turkic memorial fences, are inextricably linked with stone sculptures. In the Altai all the statues, not shifted from the original sites are always in these fences. Many fences instead of the statues on the east side there are one or two stone stelae, sometimes a boulder. And in the eastern direction from the fences, as well as from sculptures, stretch rows of small, vertically set stone-balbals. Altai fences themselves are almost identical in size and built on one principle. It podkvadratnye or rectangular area formed posed on the edge of the plates. Inside the fences are usually stone zabroska of large boulders or small pebbles. Such fences author knows the Altai over 2000. But there are many more - many thousands, and so it is hardly ever possible to give an exact figure.
One of the first ancient Turkic fences Altai investigated WWRadloff. In May 1865 they have a four fences have been excavated. Ongudai ( "Angodayskaya mission") and in June of the same year - four fences on the river. Tobozhok Chui steppe (the neighborhood with. Kosh-Agach) [KOSH-AGACH is Turkish KOÇ-AĞAÇ=RAM-TREE-SB]. "Under stone slabs one of them found a steel shovel, and under the two other fragments of iron knives ... When I dug them 1 more rectangular mound and found under stones, deepen 1/4 yard for the mainland, a small wooden trough with 4 knife and encompasses the tail bone lamb lying in the order of "1 in the same 1865 WWRadloff unearthed four fences have to. Katanda, which found only iron bits and knife 2.
In 1916, A, B. Adrianov the first time in the Altai excavated fences from stone statues on the river. Kara-Kaba 3.
Systematic studies of ancient Turkic fences were launched in 1924-1925 gg. Altai expedition ethnographic department of the Russian Museum, led by Rudenko, with the participation of N. Glukhov. A characteristic feature of this work was to find out the purpose of the expedition members fences, their cultural identity. Obviously, for this reason, fences excavations were carried out in different areas of the Altai. The first two fences have been excavated in Pazyryk and two fences in Mesheylyke Aragol near the tract on the river. Large Ulagan. Especially surprising were the results of the excavations fences (4x4 m), located on the left bank of the river. Large Ulagan, 2.5 km below the confluence with the river. Balyktyyul. Inside the fences in the pit depth of 40 cm were found human bones, sheep, other than that (?) - The charred embers, tiny iron bits and stirrups, and buckle four arrowheads 4. In the same 1924 Rudenko excavate another fences in statues, but in Kosh-Agach district, on the river. Kokori (Kokorinka) 5. At the same time it works N. Glukhov unearthed four fences on Buguzune and Uzundashe (Uzuntale?) [UZUNDASHE is Turkish UZUNDAŞ or UZUNTAŞ = LONG STONE-SB], In the wilderness, and Saylyugemskoy ogradku on p. Chibilev 8. In the next field season 1925 Rudenko and A. Rluhov continued to work at the cemetery in early Turkic Kudyrge tract, where they also found a large group of fences (60), digging six of them in the same year 7. Materials excavation of these fences have been published only 40 years later AA Gavrilova, who in 1948 opened the cemetery in Kudyrge nine ancient Turkic fences 8. in his monograph AA Gavrilova first compiled all the information about the Altai fences, devoting a separate chapter to describe them. It examines issues related to the chronology and ethnicity kudyrginskih fences 9.
A series of fences in the Altai investigated LA Evtyuhova and SV Kiselev. So, in 1934, three fences have been excavated from the sculptures with y. Kulada on p. Karakol 10; in 1935 six fences with stone sculptures and a playground at. Kurai, in the tract and Tadila Totop; in 1937 he fences in with. Tuekta 12.
Analyzing the results of excavations at the fences, LA Evtyuhova one of the first finds the sacrificial nature of the considered structures, comparing them with the "burial" of Orkhon monuments 13 Turks,
In 1939, MP Gryaznov two stone fences were excavated with a string-balbals stones in patients with. Yakonur (Kan steppe). Despite the unexpected conclusion of the excavation of the author of these fences as funerary monuments, a significant contribution is a new method for studying the memorial structures proposed by MP Gryaznov 14.On is that the entire monument (including stones series) studied one common excavation. This is how the author of this study were able to identify some of the new details in the design of these interesting and original monuments of ancient Turkic period.
Over the years, the Altai (Pazyryk, Bashadar) [PAZYRYK is like NOİN-ULA a TURKISH BURIAL-SB] continued excavations fences Rudenko. Like many of his predecessors, he is still sometimes called them "mounds" and often "square tiled graves." In one of these "mounds" under number 14 SI Rudenko discovered a small recess in which lay the bones of the forelimbs and the blade 15 horses.
A sacrificial mound (with coal-bed under the stone mound) and three fences on the river. Argut dug S. Sorokin in 1964, 16 fences with a few remnants of a vertically standing wooden poles in the center of the investigated A. Surazakova have to. Kuyus on p. Katun 17 and AS Vasyutin on p. Kyzylchin near p. Kokoro 18.
So, if you count the number of fences unearthed in the Altai, they would be no more than 70. They should add another 46 stone fences, studied Eastern Altai detachment IIFiF North Asian expeditions of the USSR. Of the 46 Altai fences 26 excavated by us in sculptures. Brief information about the fences with sculptures and drawings of finds placed in Appendix 19 of this work.
Thus, for the territory of the Altai we currently have about 116 data excavation of ancient Turkic fences. According to the materials not yet possible to give a complete comprehensive periodization ancient Turkic fences, but to identify the main types seem possible now. The first such attempt has been made at the time of AA Gavrilova. Of the total mass of the then little-studied ancient Turks Altai fences she identified two types: kudyrginsky and yakonursky. Taking the proposed AA Gavrilova typology of ancient Turkic fences Altai, we, in turn, based on the latest data obtained in the study of Eastern Altai fences, offer to extend the typology and supplement it with three new types.
Fig. 11. Plan and section of fences Yustyd type.
1 - fireplace over a hole number 4, 2 stone graters and horse teeth, 3 - pottery fragment, 4 - silver vessel, 5- weak fireplace with coals, 6 - pelvic bone of a horse, horse 7- teeth.
So, among studied fences Altai It can be roughly divided into five types of ancient Turkic fences: 1) kudyrginsky submitted collective adjacent fences; 2) yakonursky - standing next to fences with statues or anthropomorphic steles; 3) Yustyd - single fences, structures, usually of four plates with the remnants of a tree trunk in the center and sacrificial vessels (Fig. 11 , 12 ); 4) ulandryksky - the stele or boulders, in the center of fences; 5) ayutinsky - special memorial fences ancient Turkic nobility, surrounded by a moat and shaft.
Fig. 12. Findings from Yustyd fences.
1 - silver vessel, 2 - drawing tamgas at the bottom of the vessel, pottery fragment 3-, 4-stone graters, 5-ceramic vessel.
Of particular interest are the fences ayutinskogo type is open only in the south-eastern regions of Altai. The author is aware of ten such sites. The first memorial building was discovered and described by SS Sorokin 20. It is located on a high plateau Kypchyl, near the mouth of the river. Ayuty (left tributary of the R. Dzhazater). It includes two stone fences (dimensions 4,1h4,9 first, second - 4,7h4,3 m). Two stone statues were dug in the eastern side fences (198, 199), executed with great skill. Sculptures and fences surrounded subrectangular in terms of an earthen rampart and a moat (Table. XXXIII, -1). External dimensions 19h16 m construction, shaft width is 1.5 m, ditch depth of 0.6-1 m. To the east of the second sculptures (199) established a series of 46-balbals stones, at a distance of 250 m.
The second memorial monument of the same type of contact is open on the right bank of the river. Dzhazater just 2-3 km downriver from the above complex. It consists of three enclosures, arranged in a row along the line north - south. The first fences (north) is made up of plates, inside zabroska of boulders. In terms of a square, the dimensions 4x4 m. 0.2 m from a small sub fences (center) of the same construction as the first, but of smaller dimensions (1.5X Xl, 5 m). Third fences (south) to 0.2 second. Dimensions, structure and internal filling fences are similar to the third data of the first fences. In the first two fences on the east side of stone sculptures (203, 204). All three statues are surrounded by fences with earthen rampart and ditch, subrectangular plan (Table. The XXXIV, 1). External dimensions structures 15x x 9.5 m. Trench, which was taken from the earth for the application phase of the shaft has a width of 1 m and a depth of approximately 30-40 cm. From statues 1 (203) to the east it extends a series of low, vertically dug stones. It has 29 's. From the third fences managed to count eight stones.
The third and fourth memorial facilities are also in the Kosh-Agach district, in the valley. Cox. One of them in a small steppe Makazhan, on the right bank of the river. It is ogradku composed of four massive slabs. Fences Dimensions 2x2 m. It is surrounded by a square in terms of the shaft and a moat with external dimensions of 9x9 m. The eastern side of the shaft has a slide-passage width of about 1 m. To the east of a series of stone fences bars (17 pcs.) And small (1,2h1 2 m), additional fences altar. This building was excavated by us. On the outer sides of the plates fences found drawings of animals, tamga, and in the eastern plate slightly incised lines scheduled ornament oblique grid (table. The XXX, 3). In the corners of fences cleaned four pole-holes, and one in the center of fences. In all five pits remains of charred stakes diameter of 6-7 cm. The fences and around the horse's bones were found, and the sheep, and from the east side to the fences in a layer of turf were found fragments of stone izvaniya (185), under which stripped crushed ceramic vessel (Table . XXX, 4).
Other (fourth) structure open on the left bank of the R. Cox, in the tract Bogolok. It fences, made up of 11 panels. Its dimensions are 5x5 meters. It is surrounded by an earthen rampart and ditch, subrectangular plan (12x8 m). The shaft has at the corners, passages breaks. In one passage in the shaft there are the northern and southern side. The width of each of 90-100 cm. On the eastern side of the fences is a broken stone statue (Table. XXXII, 194).
The fifth, sixth and seventh memorial constructions of ancient Turkic nobility discovered by the author in 1978 in the valley. Buguzun originating from the spurs of the border with Tuva Shapshalskogo ridge. Two monuments are located on the right bank of the river in the tract Maltalu. One of them, perhaps the most interesting in design, excavated by us in the same year (Table. XLI, 7).
The sixth building is just 0.7 km north-east of the excavated fences. It consists of two small (the size of the first 2,2h2,2 m, second-1.6x Xl, 6 m) fences close to the fences Yustyd type that is made up of four massive slabs each. Both fences are surrounded by a common shaft and a moat (12 X XlO m). Val paved with pebbles and small boulders, trench depth of not more than 30 cm from the surface. The shaft on the north and east side one pass, no statues, but on the east side fences traced two rows of fallen and most of the turf-covered stone-balbals.
Very unusual construction of the 7th, which also should be attributed to the ancient Turkic memorial complexes. It is located almost on the border with Altai Tuva, 6 km upstream from the mouth of the river. Tekel, on the right bank of the river. Buguzun. Arrange on a high terrace, and is a rectangular area (34h30 m), surrounded by a rampart and moat. At its center on the axis north - south three stone mounds. Central round shape with a diameter of 9 meters, the other two in terms podkvadratnye (size of the first 6 x 6 m, the second - 3,5h3,5 m) and remotely resemble blurred Ancient fences. The eastern side of the shaft has three break-pass. Tree height of about 1 m, is the same and the depth of the pit. Sculptures and balbals not.
Eighth construction - probably in the Altai is the only one of its kind (Table XXXIX.). It is located just in the middle of the tract in the area Yang Dzhilykydal-Gobo and 10 km north-east from. Kokoro. Is a fence dimensions 13,5h13,5 m. On the eastern side of the fence lay a blank sculptures made of solid plates with the image of the two zones, and almost indistinguishable animal figures. To the east of the fence balbals number, there were 57 stones at a distance of 220 m. Many stones in the series is lacking at the end of ring-shaped masonry with a diameter of 1.5 m.
From the findings of direct relevance to the time of the construction of the fence, it should include a miniature iron bits (Table. XXXIX, 3). They were found in, filling the sample from the north-west corner of the fence. Filling fence consisted essentially of plates stacked in layers 4-5. There were also huge shapeless lumps and boulders, gravel. In the upper part of the mound was nezadernovannoy most quartzite pebbles, small rolled up tiles. After the final sample filling fence capacity exceeding 1 m, it found that the interior space was paved with slabs and stones carefully fitted together. Especially clearly traced a pavement outside the fence, on the east side. Among the stone pavement, and mostly around the pit to the stele, found fragments of jaws and horse teeth, fragments of bones of other animals, as well as wood embers. In some places the stones and earth calcined, but hearths were found, except for a small spot of ash from the western edge of the pit under the stele-statue (Table. XXXIX, 223). After stripping and sampling of filling it became possible to calculate the total number of plates. They turned out to be 47 (12 plates in the northern and western sides of the plates 14 in the South and 9 boards in the east side). When stripping it was also found six pole holes located at an equal (1.5-2 m) distance from each other along the eastern side of the fence on the outside of the plates. The three wells found well-preserved remains of larch poles.
But the most unusual in the construction of the fence - the central pit, a little shifted to the north. Filled top to large boulders, rubble and slabs charred pieces of knotty poles, it contains a wooden likeness grobovischa, chopped paw of thin (thickness 2-3 cm) of larch planks. The long axis oriented to the south-east to north-west, it turned out to be completely empty inside. The heads (?) (South-east) the building was blocked by a massive slab, which had fallen into one end of the pits. The dimensions of the pit 245h170 cm, depth 110 cm, the size of "grobovischa" with his tight-fitting slabs (stone box?) 170h63h70 see.
The ninth construction is known to us on the left bank of the river. Bashkaus, 1-2 km from the. Ulagan. It is on the field, and the fan on all sides and, obviously, so reminiscent of the appearance of a large earthen mound. However, it is possible to distinguish between the moat and rampart subrectangular bulk form (20x16 m). In the center of the area deep (1.5 m) submarine pit and turf-covered emissions from it. In some places in the earth can be traced slate fence boards. According to him it failed to install fences around the dimensions equal to 8x8 m. We found a statue, but on the east side has a string of high stone stelae-balbals, numbering about a dozen stones. The shaft on the east side has a subtle pass. Same-reducing passages are in all four corners of the shaft.
The tenth structure open contact on the left bank of the river. Aktru in Kurai steppe. It consists of two fences (4,5h4,5 each), surrounded by a rampart and ditch, with external dimensions of 22 x 18 m. On the south-eastern side of the fences two statues (114, 115) and rows of stone columns, balbals. Excavations in and around the fences revealed pits (25-35 cm in diameter with a depth of 50-90 cm) with the remains of wooden pillars (diameter of 18-20 cm and a length of the preserved part of 40-50 cm). Poles were framing the basis of small, square in plan, buildings burned in the final part of the "funeral" ceremony.
From the objects found in the Altai fences, animal bones are found more often (horses and sheep), iron knives, harness objects (most other tiny bits ) and weapons, vessels and graters. Despite the apparent diversity of these items, you will notice a set of traditional cult. And, of course, many of these findings are inside enclosures is no coincidence, their purpose is quite understandable. It is clear that the iron knives accompanied by meat eating. It was almost always the rear of the sheep carcasses - teaching (. Dim), which is considered among the nomads for thousands of years the most honorable and traditional at the funeral rites. Meat (of which survived only sacral vertebrae lying in anatomical order) put on a wooden plate, tray or sheet of bark dish with meat and a knife was put in the northern part of the fences, inside stone boxes or at the bottom of a shallow oval pit, which is sometimes also served and symbolic hearth. So here some more and found the ash, charcoal and burned animal bones. The main argument for this assertion is the discovery of the dishes on the rivers Tobozhok (WWRadloff) and sculptures from Buguzun 229, 230. Exactly the same, but less than the various depressions or the remains of stone boxes marked with the bones of the sheep in the northern part of the Altai many fences, excavated by us in different years. The bones of a horse fences consist principally of forelegs, phalanges and hooves, skull fragments and even entire jaws. Due to the fact that they are found not only in the fences, he and beyond, it is possible to assume the hanging of heads of horses together with the skins, the front and rear legs. But maybe fences exhibited stuffed animals and horses? However, it is not entirely clear where, established in the center of the fences were stuffed, although it has been suggested by the author, and about hanging them on a special poles or tree. This, in particular, reported that the bones in the horse fences never found in anatomical order, but always scattered over a large area.
It is possible to explain the presence in the fences and harness objects. Thus, a set of iron parts harness (Table. XLVIII, 3-5) from Yustyd fences with statue 244 unequivocally indicates that ogradku was necessary gear for a horse. The kit includes: iron bridle with cheek-pieces and two iron buckles (bridle); two iron stirrup, girth buckle and safety - (?) armored badges (saddle). All these items bear the signs of fire.
Of the subjects in arms fences found arrowheads, quivers details lining the bow n rare daggers, armor plates. We can therefore conclude that the fences occasionally put a bow and arrows, and in some cases, daggers and armor of the belt. Most likely, a quiver of arrows and a bow pritorachivalis to the saddle horse (in this case, it stuffed?), Belonged to the deceased, and then he also sacrificed 21.
Fig. 13. Figures on the plates of fences Kara Dyurguna (Altai).
Six different vessels found in the Altai fences. Two of them silver, and one of three ceramic iron. All of them, except for the broken iron boiler, were found on the east side fences at the base of the stone sculptures. Finding the wreckage of ceramic vessels from other statues (for example, 229 statues of Buguzuna have fences 1 of Yustyda et al.) Suggests that many of the Altai and statues stood before the sacrificial vessels.
Only a small part of the Altai sculptures preserved to date. There is no doubt that in the past were much larger. A large number are not extant sculptures could be made of wood, as well as some of the Polovtsian statue 1. [POLOVTSİAN-POLOVETS-KIPCHAK TURKS-SB]
Many Altai fences are slabs or boulders anthropomorphic shapes, smooth surfaces which are most often facing general (front) side of the east might be drawn with paint facial features, clothes, weapons. Perhaps a similar tradition, originated in Central Asia 2, and inherited Polovtsian wizard is used for coloring statues of black and red paint 3.
In this connection it is necessary to pay attention to the material of some ancient Turkic sculptures. As a rule, especially lifelike figures of Altai, Tuva and Mongolia are made of limestone or white marble. Images of objects they hardly differ, merging with the stone background. Perhaps they were painted in ancient times, passing all the colors of the rich costume of noble Turks. And the color inks is easy to recover, based on the image of the Turks and Sogdians in the wall paintings of Penjikent and Afrosiab. [named after Turkish leader Afrasiab-Alp Er Tunga-SB] Interestingly in this respect the story, recorded by us in the Altai storyteller Culkin. He reported one stone sculptures, which saw in the taiga, called Togorok. From his description, it was one of the most realistic figures of Altai. On one side "stone warrior with a golden girdle," were depicted leather bag or container, painted in red color; on the other side hung a weapon in a gold sheath. Cup (chochay) was covered with silver paint. Statues were approximately in an area. Yelo. About him also knew two other old, one of whom died, and the other as if it were lost, had an accident. At the heart of the fabulous narrative Calkin may lie re-anye information about the ancient custom of coloring stone figures.
Altai sculptures are sometimes installed in groups of 4-5 to 13-17 pieces in one place. In particular, such places are known in the steppe Makazhan in tracts Keme-Quechua Kyrlandyn-Kini, rivers Ayuty, Chaganbur-gases in many other areas of the Altai. Next to them, as a rule, no, not only simultaneous burial structures, but also any other archaeological sites. Obviously, this was a small ancestral shrines, resembling the appearance of seasonal settlement of nomads. In such settlements, according to the ideas of the ancients, for a time lived the souls of dead relatives. Interestingly, on the same principle and are grouped early Scythian sculptures Altai - 4 deer stones, and later - Polovtsian statues 6. The latter researchers fixed deposits of rubble from the ritual structures are very similar in design to the ancient Turkic memorial fences in. GA Fedorov-Davydov SA Pletnev believe that it was a special sanctuary, arranged at a distance from their graves and dedicated to the cult of the ancestors.
Our work is not considered semantics of ancient Turkic statues on the grounds that this question after a long discussion with confidence I decided in favor of the point of view of them as images of dead Turks themselves, rather than their perceived enemies. Therefore, if appropriate just here again to repeat the detailed arguments LR Kyzlasov 7, 8 JA Sher and other scientists have proven conclusively and consistently in his work all the inconsistency of the hypothesis of accessories statues of dead enemies. We can add to this that the question of the appointment of the bulk of the ancient Turkic sculptures, obviously, can be regarded as finally settled, taking into account the archaeological site of the Altai memorial structures and their firmly established interpretation.
Thus, at the heart of the ancient custom install stone sculptures; widespread in many of the nomadic peoples of Eurasia, lays down common ideological iredstavleniya on family and tribal patrons. "It can be assumed, that such ideas goes back to the common outlook of Scythian tribes time constructed" deer stones "and laid the foundations of cultural and social unity of the Asian pastoral societies" 9. deer stones, statues of the Scythian warriors - have much in common from the ancient statues (similar orientation, the same material and a set of images, additional facilities memorial character, and so on. d.), as the author wrote in a recent paper 10. [Scythian - Sacae - Massagatea are Turkish Tribes, the evidence: language, same culture and traditions-SB- TURKİSH DEER STONES-LİNK]
We inadvertently touched another problem - the origin of the ancient Turkic sculptures. Many researchers have repeatedly pointed to a large chronological gap between the Scythian and Turkic statues. There have been attempts to construct genetic evolution of a number of stone sculptures from the Scythian times to the Middle Ages. Thus, according to LR Kyzlasov, a certain attitude to the origin of the ancient Turkic statues are known Tashtyk masks, which form a curious series: Tashtyk funerary masks - masks, busts standing - stone byustovye image (maloesinskogo type) - busts image with hands and the vessel ( Kesey type-tas) - Turkic stone sculptures in the form of a sculpture in the round. DG Savinov added that a number of new types of volumetric image of a man - "clay heads" typology occupy an intermediate position between the masks and sculpture.
Among them, he highlighted the "head" of the mound number 6 Shestakovsky burial in the Kemerovo region. According to the reconstruction of the author's excavations AI Martynov, it belonged to a mannequin, set within a complex of burial structure. Last on some structural elements (area of about-zhennoy clay roof remnants of birch bark, and others.) Resembles more recent ancient Turkic fences. Shestakov structure with "clay heads" (dummy) after a period of being burned. Similarly, burned and memorial buildings of the ancient Turks. Shestakovsky monument dates back to I in. BC. e. and can be considered one of the earliest cases of conservation of the late appearance of a certain period of time to carry out funeral rites and sacrifices p. Assuming that to the same time or a little later (IV c.) apply some facial 12 statues of Altai and Tuva, the olennymn chronological gap between the stones (which, incidentally, are also often topped with sculptures of human heads) and the ancient Turkic sculptures will be significantly reduced.
Among the interesting facts that can help oesheniyu problem of the origin of the ancient Turkic sculptures include familial separate memorial facilities. But if the famous sculptures of Hagan Kul-Tegin and his wife, the queen, perhaps, were terrestrial hypostasis divine married couple among the people of the world - Tengri Umai and 13, the other 14 monuments of Mongolia and Tuva 15: undoubtedly depict ordinary couples. As the phenomenon of the same order we should mention some of the statues of the Altai, on the left of which are set or two small Uneven stele (often with two rows balbals) many fences Altai, which is obviously also meant as fresh image of men and women. Pairing statues and steles from the ancient Turkic memorial structures, probably dates back to the ancient tradition of steam installation deer stones and stelae - one of the most characteristic features of Early Scythian sanctuaries Altai 16. Our conclusion is supported by the results of thorough research Polovtsian family and tribal sanctuaries, where often in the same building set two statues - for men and women 17.
On the origin and development of the ancient Turkic sculptures greatly influenced canonized images of Buddhist art, which to a large extent have been distributed primarily in Sogdian art. Old Turkic iconic canon "is rooted in Buddhist iconography, where every gesture has a certain meaning" 18, while maintaining their own, older stylistic devices. The iconic sculpture of the ancient Turks, in varying degrees, experienced the influence of Buddhism, Manichaeism, Mazdaism and develop the traditions of Sogdian art school, kept at the same time not only the shaman, but doshamanskie religious views. The latter shows produced by our reconstruction of the ancient Turkic memorial rite in individual terms, preserved in many Central Asian peoples.
For example, one of the most recent monuments of this kind is the structure described GN Potanin in Mongolia on the lake. Dain-Gol. It is a "rectangular log building with a gable roof, inside of which is made of granite bust, on stylistic features closely resembling ancient Turkic stone sculptures. This sculpture was surrounded by" boards of the box ", and was stretched rope with the remains suspended it different before him sacrifices "19. in the graves of the Kazakh elite, until the XVIII century., constructed sacrificial fence square shape, probably derived from the ancient Turkic fences. In them, as in medieval ritual structures, the day of commemoration sacrificed to various animals 20. The stability of the ancient Turkic memorial ceremony and related custom installation of the late stone images show very generalized statue (head depicted in the form of a ball or separated by a horizontal bar at the top of the stele), established as gravestones at Muslim cemeteries in Central Asia and the Caucasus 21. Some Ancient art techniques have survived in the modern Altai sculpture. Especially expressive image of the human face in Eezi - ancestors of the shaman, the image which figures were inserted in the Altai drums 22.
Ethnicity Altai statues - one of the most difficult questions of archaeological research. Quite fruitful is the study of pictorial manner and realities specific to this or that statue, and in particular the comparison of the figures produced by the same master. Another AD Grach noticed that some stone figures from Tuva are identical in style and technique of execution Eastern Altai. The similarities noted by us and other groups of sculptures Chui (on the border with Mongun-Taiga district of Tuva). Therefore, probably right AD Grach, who claimed that the south-west of Tuva and Altai in the South lived compact ethnic group, and the border ridge Chikhacheva as the adjacent ridge Shapshalsky not served while the ethnic boundary. This group included the Turkic-speaking tribes known by Chinese chronicles under the name "tugyu". Another group drevnetyurkskph tribes, known as the "body", also inhabited the Altai. Part of the Altai sculptures undoubtedly left and these tribes.
Ancient statues of Altai as it linked the two centers of concentration of ancient sculpture: Central Asia (Mongolia, Tuva) and Central Asia (Kazakhstan, the Seven Rivers), which corresponded to the Middle Ages, the political borders of Eastern and Western Turkic khanate. However, the highlight among them a group of pieces, pinadlezhavshih specific tribes not currently possible. So far, we can only speak about the general ethnic categories. For example, argutskaya group differs from the bulk of the Altai statues more detail clothing, weapons, a kind of headgear. She prefers the East Kazakhstan statues (Kimak-Qypchaq ethno-cultural area). Other groups Altai statues again have their own local differences may be reflecting an internal ethnography of ancient Turkic khanates. Stone sculptures are one of the main archaeological sources on the ethnic composition of the population of the Altai in the ancient era. However, these data need to be supplemented by further research Orderly other medieval monuments of territory: settlements, burial sites, cave paintings.
Old Turkic memorial complex Gyor-You. Kubarev
Ancient cultures of the Altai and Western Siberia. Novosibirsk, 1978, pp 86-98.
Investigated ancient Turkic memorial complex is located in the 10-15 km from the village C. Kokoro (Kosh-Agach District, Gorno-Altai Autonomous Oblast), on a hill Gyor-You. Hill stretches from the western spurs Saylyugemskogo ridge, its length from B to Z reaches 6-8 km and a width of only 150-200 m Its configuration is subordinated to the general terrain.; He also lowered and extended to the west as Uzuntalskaya steppe. Almost in the middle of the hill it is arranged memorial complex consisting of 4 ancient Turkic fences erected along the line U-C. Except for one mound located on the B of fences and other archaeological sites on the hill there. At the foot of the hill in the South of fences located modern Altai cemetery. On the east side of the fences II set strongly weathered statue of white stone (Fig. 1).
It is known from Telengits called Ak-Tash [AK-WHİTE / TASH-STONE-TURKISH-SB] was discovered SI Rudenko in 1924 and then published in the LA . Evtyuhovoy  Dimensions sculptures -. 142x50x12 cm On In 11 from it are a number of stones in the dug-balbals average height of 20-40 cm Last balbal set 172 meters from the sculptures..Two Balbala delivered and the east side fences I. In the eastern fence panels of the same fences, outside, symmetrically laid out two stone heaps ( about ) of rounded river pebbles (Fig. 3). Weak zadernovannost evidence of their late origin. East fences III sticking a broken one balbal.
Statue from the river Jara Yam.
// Problems of conservation, study and use of the cultural heritage of the Altai. Barnaul, 1995. pp 158-162.
It was ten years after the publication of the summary of ancient Turkic statues Altai ( Kubarev 1984 ). During this time a number of new articles and posts, dedicated both to the stone statues (Mamadakov, 1985; Kubarev, Coche, 1989; Larin, Surazakov, 1992; Khudyakov, Borodovskii, 1993 and others.) And memorial structures (Vasjutin, Ilyushin , Elin, 1985; Surazakov, 1985, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1993; Iliushin, 1985, 1992; Ermolenko, 1991; Mogilnikov, 1992; Soёnov V. Soёnov M., 1992). Several papers also devoted to stone sculptures and ancient Turkic fences Tuva and Mongolia (Ovchinnikov, 1992; Fedorov, 1991; Voitov, 1986, 1989, Bayard, 1991).
Despite the fact that much of the stone sculptures of Central and Middle Asia have been published, each season brings new field discoveries. So, for example, recently found a typically Turkic burial and memorial complexes in the Southern Urals (Kostjukov, 1994), Kyrgyzstan (Tabaldiyev, Soltobaev, 1992), and memorial constructions in the Ob-Irtysh forest (Adams, 1992). New materials make researchers to reopen discussion on the appointment of stone statues and memorial structures
"According to Herodotus Gelonus was the capital of the Scythian tribe Budini"
"Budini Gelonion urbem ligneam habitant. iuxta Thyssagetae Turcaeque vastas silvas occupant alunturque venando."
Book 1:117 Pomponius Mela (died 45 AD) Roman Geographer
"The Budini inhabit the city of Gelonos. Next to them the Thyssagetae and Turcae occupy endless forests and feed themselves by hunting." Book 1:117 Mela
"Unter 'Türken', - früher oft auch 'Torken' geschrieben - haben wir durchaus nicht die Osmanen von heute zu verstehen, die erst im mittelalter Europa betraten, denn das von ihnen dermalen bewohnte gebiet hiess schon so Vor Christi Geburt, wie dies eine Stelle aus Melas schriften beweist: "Budini Gelonion urbem ligneam habitant. iuxta Thyssagetae Turcaeque vastas silvas occupant alunturque venando." - Die Slaven, ein Urvolk Europas by Martin Zunkovic (153) eng.[Under 'Turks', - previously often written 'Torken' - we have no means to understand the Ottomans today who entered only in medieval Europe, because the dermal of them inhabited area was called already so before the birth of Christ, as a point of Melas regulations proves:..]
TURCAEQUE = TURCAE = TURK
Who says that the Turks appear first at the 11th century AD in Turkey (Asia Minor)? Or who says that the word "Turk" appears first at the 5th-6th c AD in Chinese chronicles? WHO?
look for Turukku 20th c BC, the first word "Turk". Tur and Tar words are the root words of Turk. Turks are the native inhabits of Turkey and Middle East. This is our Homeland. Some of Turkish tribes went first to east then some of them came back, as Seljuk of Oghuz Tribe. Oghuz (Oğuz) like Oxus River in Strabo geography. Or As Turks as in Asia.
Without the Turks, you can not write History.
We say "TÜRK BUDUN" Budun means "nation, people", Budin=Budun
("Turk" has preserved its ethnic meaning at some fragments "Turk Budun" to the present. -
Monuments of ancient Turkic khanate VI-VIII centuries.Kyzlov,1979)
TURKISH CULTURE - TURKISH HISTORY