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8 Ağustos 2016 Pazartesi

Ancient Turkic sculptures Altai 1


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USSR Academy of Sciences 
SIBERIAN BRANCH 
Institute of History, Philology and Philosophy

VD KUBAREV
Contributing Editor Dr. ist. Sciences EI Derevyanko

"Nauka" Novosibirsk SIBERIAN BRANCH 1984
Kubarev VD Ancient statues Altaya.- Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1984.

The book is the first comprehensive publication of the ancient Turkic stone sculptures of Altai, much of which is opened by the author. Presents materials on more than 200 sculptures Altai, summarized the results of years of archaeological excavations of ancient Turkic memorial structures that accompany the sculptures. On the basis of new materials with the assistance of ethnographic sources reconstructed "funeral" rite Eastern Altai Turks, as well as the issues related to the semantics, 
the chronology and the cultural and ethnographers.

Reviewers: AI Martynov VI Molodin
introduction
Chapter 1. Distribution of statues, their general characteristics
Chapter 2. The realities on izvvayaniyah as a source on history and ethnography
Chapter 3. Grave construction
conclusion
abbreviations
Note
application
tables

INTRODUCTION

Among the many ancient monuments occupy a special place stone statues, known in the archaeological literature as inaccurate, but the traditional name "stone images" [TASHBABA and BALBAL-SB] (1). Through the efforts of Russian and foreign scientists and different time heterogeneous types of stone sculptures were divided into several cultural and historical groups. This statues of the Bronze Age and Scythian time ("deer stones"), Ancient and Kypchak-Polovtsian statues of the southern Russian steppes. 

One of the largest groups account for Ancient sculptures in a large amount common in the vast mountain-steppe spaces of Central and Middle Asia. They are mostly portrayed in a sitting posture men Mongoloid appearance with high-cheeked face, slanting almond-shaped eyes, very often with a mustache and beard. In some sculptures depicted in the ears earrings, around the neck smooth mane or necklace; also shows clothing: heterogeneous hats, robes and caftans with cuffs over his chest, narrow or wide sleeves and cuffs. In the narrow belt, dialed using different plaques, suspended from a dagger and a sword in the scabbard, and handbag, sharpener and other items. Almost all sculptures vessel depicted generally in the right hand (left hand usually lies on the belt or arms).

Old Turkic stone sculptures in a large number of publications, including several monographs. And it is quite natural, as the lonely standing stone figures stood out sharply against the background of the Asian mountains and steppes, among the first to attract the attention of travelers and scientists.


Fig. 1. The ancient tombs of the Altai Mountains 
(on the GI Spassky, 1819).
[TASHBABA (with Oath Cup) represents the leader and BALBAL (without Oath Cup) represents the enemy, can also be from a different Turkish Tribe, 
must serve him in the other world- SB]



First a summary of the stone sculptures found in the Altai reports Russian prospectors who studied the Altai mountains in search of ores in the early-XVIII century. Following individual prospectors sent to Altai complex expeditions.

The first such expedition led by Peter Sheleginym, was sent to the Russian government in 1745. It gathered valuable geographic data about the area of ​​Lake Teletskoye and Chulyshman pool. Lawrence Fedenev and Nikita Shangin, the participants of the ore-search party in 1785, discovered and first sketched "the ancient peoples of the statue" in the mouth of the river. Heaters (left tributary of the river. Katun)[ KATUN is Turkish, means: Wife of Hakan/King-SB] (3). Mention stone sculptures and travel records academician PS Pallas, leader of two expeditions to Altai (4).

A significant role in the archaeological study of the edge has played one of the pioneers of the bourgeois-liberal historiography in the Siberian archeology GI Spassky. More than 8 years, he has lived and worked in the Altai. In one of his works placed drawings "of ancient tombstones from the Altai Mountains" (5) ( Fig. 1 ).

In 1826, a well-known scientist Professor University of Dorpat KF Ledebour also organized an expedition to the Altai. The "Altai hills" they examined ancient graves, which were erected slate slabs depicting human figures (6).

Stone sculptures and later attracted the attention of researchers. Separate notes and records about them can be found in the works of PA Chikhacheva (1842), AI Schrenk (1840-1843), GE Shurovsky (1844) and PI Nebolsina (1845).

In 1848-1851 gg. Altai conducted geological surveys mining engineer Vlangali. He also repeatedly met "Chud" mounds with stone placed upon them images of people (7) monographic description of Western Siberia, compiled Zavalishin, collected information on the ancient monuments of the region. These included (8) and stone sculptures.

A special place in the archaeological study of the Altai in the second half of the XIX century. you must take activities VV Radlov. His first expedition to the south-western districts of the region, he organized in 1860-1861 gg., And then in 1865 in the travel notes and records of the scientist is constantly referred to "rough stone images of people (women)" (9), made with these drawings.

Among local researchers Altai antiquities can not fail to highlight the eminent ethnographers SI and NS Gulyaev, mainly engaged in the folklore of Siberia, SI Gulyaev also gave a lot of time gathering information about archaeological sites. In his opinion all the mounds of Western Siberia were earth mounds, unlike them mounds of the Altai Mountains were made of stone. Often in such graves are stone pillars or statues in the form of a human figure. All data on the SI Gulyaev monuments summarized in handwritten papers:. "Notes on Chud hills", "On the hills or mounds in Siberia," and so d.(10) NS Gulyaev continued collection of archaeological finds and records of various ancient monuments (11) according to him, a group of stone sculptures ( "idols") [TASHABA and BALBAL-SB] before standing on the mounds on the road from the village. Baturova in the village. Idolovo (hence the name of the village) (12). NS Gulyaev published a picture of one of the sculptures on the river. Cox. Originally, the statue was like a stone pillar with the "mark of the highly uncertain." (13) He was subsequently found another fragment of a stone pillar and "undefined Inscription" turned to face sculptures (see. Table. The XXXII, 193, 1).

The famous explorer of Central Asia, GN Potanin on the way to Mongolia (1879) described the location of some of the Altai sculptures and drawings and published them. Along with other researchers in Siberia, NM Yadrintsev, he published a drawing and Chui deer stone mask. And N.Yadrintsev, who was in 1878-1880 gg. in the most remote corners of the Altai Mountains, more thoroughly and completely describe a variety of archaeological sites. His attention was drawn primarily to the mysterious "Skin-Tashi" - stone [Tash-Taş-Stone in Turkish-SB] the women he met throughout his route along the river valleys Chulyshman, Bashkaus, Sensing and Cox. He not only carefully crafted stone sculptures (by making drawings and removing dimensions), and has published a series of them in its article (15). The collected GN Potanin and NM Yadrintsev materials proved to be very valuable for archeology, since some of these stone "women" have already been lost, while others are poorly preserved for the past 100 years. 

in the footsteps of N. Yadrintsev passed AV Andrianov during a trip in 1881 he explored the ancient river valleys monuments Chulyshman, Jaan-Ulagan and Bashkaus (16) . In this case, once again he described and sketched some stone figures, open NM Yadrintsev. But undoubtedly the new and very interesting were the results of AV Hadrian held them in a system of rivers and Bukhtarma Narym 30 years later. Data excavated some mounds, we have been made ​​on the collected inscriptions and discovered a large group of stone sculptures. In his great work (dedicated to travel 1911) for the first time are (17) pictures of Altai sculptures.

Members statistical expedition sent in 1897 the Altai district management to explore the "Kalmyk" camps (SP Shvetsov, MS Shvetsov, P. Yukhnev and Nikiforov NY) also showed great interest in ancient monuments of Altai . They once again (after GN Potanin and NM Yadrintsev) published figures Chui deer stone and made the first detailed picture of the stone statues "Kaeser," Kurai steppes of (18) Both monuments were treated for his time very well, which distinguishes the expedition of the preceding.

Scattered information on the individual stone sculptures found in the Altai little-known official records, reports and communications of local residents. In 1899, a peasant G. Konev in the valley. White Anouilh found a stone statue, lying under a layer of earth. That same year, the village headman Egorov said a report the find to the Statistical Office of the Main Department of the Altai region. After some time, the statue was removed in Tomsk, although in a somewhat damaged condition (was repulsed face). However, MA Demin found in the archives of this figure (19) sculptures made before the damage, allowing you to completely restore the image of the unique stone figures.

Land PM Botchkarev in 1906 made the first photograph of the stone statues "Kaeser" (see. Table. XX, 121) of the Kurai steppe (20).

State Councillor Dolbezhevym VI, made a trip to the Altai in 1907, it was reported in the statement of a statue of the mouth of the river. Karakol (right tributary of the river. Ursul). The description of the annexed figure (21).

Very interesting were the trips botany VI Vereshchagin, Barnaul teacher of a secondary school, he had committed in the south-eastern regions of Altai (1907-1908) on the instructions of the Altay sub-division of the West Siberian Department of the Russian Geographical Society. He mentions the already well-known "stone broads" below the mouth of the river. Jan Ulagan, on the right bank of the river. Bashkaus (Uzun Yazi) of "Chud graves, vertical rows of stones and stone broads" in the valley. Yasatera (Dzhazatera) (22).

IG Grane in 1907, resulting from Biysk up with. Kosh-Agach and then to Mongolia, at p. Tenga photographed and sketched several stone statues and steles. These illustrations, published in I.G.Grane (23) remain the only indication as statues still not detected, and possibly be lost.

Thus, the revolution Altai visited only individual scientists, individuals or small expeditions. From fragmentary information about ancient monuments, unsystematic random excavations. Especially striking early successes of Soviet scholars in the study of archaeological monuments of Altai, the historical past of the population. Quite a different methodological basis of field surveys, public funding of works, the creation of stationary research organizations and planned field expeditions - all this allowed scientists to pick up as soon as possible at a very high level of the archeology of the Altai.

One of the first was the Altai expedition (1924- 1925), organized by former ethnographic department of the State Russian Museum, led by Rudenko. Detachments of this expedition, carrying out systematic excavations in Verhneobe and Altai foothills, paid great attention to the search and mapping is still unknown to science archaeological sites in remote areas of the Altai Mountains. In 1924, member of the expedition N. Glukhov surveyed monuments in the steppe Saylyugemskoy (24). On p. Buguzun they unearthed three ancient Turkic fences, one of which stood a stone izvanie. On examination of these fences in 1980, the author of this book has been found yet another broken statue (see. Table. XXXVI, 215) (25). In the same 1924 Rudenko ogradku he opened one on the river. Kukuri and opened a series of stone sculptures that were they are briefly described and photographed (26). Individual units Altai expedition also surveyed mouth part p. Chulyshman and shore of Lake Teletskoye. Archival MP Hraznova we managed to find a photo of a small stone sculptures (see. Table. The XIII, 87), discovered in 1925 N. Glukhov have to. Bela in the south-eastern shore of Lake Teletskoye.






Chapter 1

DISTRIBUTION sculptures, their general characteristics

Altai - a vast, mountainous country, known for its glittering peaks, thousands of blue lakes, rapids turbulent rivers, green dark taiga and alpine sagebrush steppe. The highest ridges of the Altai - Katun, North and South Chui Chui, who, reaching a height of 4000 meters, divide large river basins in Southern Siberia - the Ob and Irtysh. The sources of these rivers are the major rivers of the Altai - Biya, Katun, and Chuya Bukhtarma. For edges and characterized by ridges and arrays height 1500-2000 m, with slaboraschlenennymi ridges separated by intermountain hollows, called steppes: Chui, Kurai, Yaboganskaya etc...

In the Altai common mountain-steppe, mountain forest and alpine landscapes. The first are found mostly on the periphery of the mountain 'area: in the foothills and lowlands, bordering a fairly wide belt of Western, Northern and Southern Altai. In the Central Altai steppe landscapes are either in the intermountain basins or on the southern slopes of the ridges. Mountain-forest landscapes cover more than half the area of ​​the edge and represent areas of low mountains and middle mountains covered with pine and aspen forests. And finally, alpine landscapes are characteristic of the most elevated part of the Altai Mountains. Formation of a large quantity hypsometric elation, which explains the severe climatic conditions, availability of modern glaciation (Gorny Altai, Tomsk, 1971, p 199-204.). .Orograficheskie Features allow you to split the territory into separate Altai region - Central, South, East, North-West and the North-East.


Fig. 2. Overall map of ancient Turkic sculptures Altai.


Mapping information on the stone sculptures of the Altai territory is limited Gorno-Altai Autonomous Region, as the author for many reasons, was not able to get acquainted with the archaeological sites of Southwest Altai (East Kazakhstan).

For a visual representation of the distribution of stone monuments on the territory of Altai compiled a summary map ( Figure 2. ), Which also reflects the quantitative distribution of the studied sculptures by area: Mayminsky District - 1 sculpture, Shebalinsky - 9, Ust-Kan - 8 Ongudai - 60, Ust -Koksinsky - 8, Kosh-Agach-146, Ulagansky -20 and the rest of the Altai - 4 statues.

The greatest accumulation accounted for Kosh-Agach and Ongudai areas. This, of course, due to the fact that both regions - native habitat steppe herders, material and historical monuments which are considered by us sculptures. The study of map data on the Altai stone sculptures clearly showed that the construction site of these monuments were chosen mainly in intermountain basins ( "STEP") and in river valleys. As a rule, it is small in size Dolinka steppe with views of the majestic, sacred in ancient mountains. A significant part of statues is focused on the Altai along the busiest in the ancient roads and trails from Mongolia, Tuva and Kazakhstan. These paths in a mountainous terrain are only comfortable and traditional in our days. In the mountain forest areas of Northern Altai not found any statues. Apparently, they are not in the mountainous regions of Altai as they do not occur on a vast plateau Ukok on space other than a harsh climate and difficult accessibility.

To determine the local (possibly ethnogeographical) features in the spread of stone sculptures can be grouped on a territorial basis - in each group to combine monuments found within a particular zone. Conventionally, all the Altai sculptures can be divided into seven such groups.

I. Ursul group (43 sculptures) is located in the valley. Ursul river valleys and its tributaries Taldushki, Tenga, Kaerlyka, Kurota, Lower Taldy, Karakol, and Small Ulitka Ilgumen. A characteristic feature of the main parts of Ursul sculptures - a single style and manner of execution. On the broad sides of the massive rough stelae depict only the faces of the people, sometimes pointed oval circled below, outlines the contours of the head.

II. Katun group (33 sculptures) is located in the upper and middle reaches of the river valley. Katun and in the valleys of its tributaries Small Eloman, Yuhtiner, Terebety and Turgunda.

III. Ulagansky. group (20 sculptures) located at Lake Teletskoye, the system of rivers Bashkaus, Chulyshman and river valleys of the tributaries Balyktyyul, Small and Large Balyksa Ulagan.

IV. Kurai group (18 sculptures) is found primarily in the Kurai steppe, in the valley. Chu and its tributaries Tadzhilu, Toto, Tydtugem and the lake. Dzhanyskol.

V. Chaganuzunskaya group (20 sculptures) located mainly in the valley. Chaganuzun and the valleys of its tributaries Kazyl-Bus, Ak-Kaya, Ak-Cola, as well as on the left bank of the River. Chui valley and its close to the inflow r.Tuyaryk . Chaganuzun.

VI. Argutskaya group (61 a statue.) - In the valleys of the rivers Argut, Cox and Dzhazatera, as well as in the valleys of their tributaries Karagema, Samah, Ayuty etc. In the group it is possible to distinguish three major and independent sector.

The first complex is located on the left bank of the river. Argut, in the estuary. Karaga. It has more than 60 ancient Turkic fences and three large stone mound. All of them are located in the small mountain basin surrounded by low ridges and called in Altai Kyrlandyn-Kini. About half of the fences can be attributed to the small ancient Turkic fences, arranged in pairs. Often, one is a statue fences, and next - a smaller anthropomorphic stele. The same combination found in fences and paired Uneven stele. In Kyrlandyn-Kini five statues (Table. XXIV, 146-150), which are combined with small, almost the same size and primitive processing techniques.

The continuation of this complex, obviously, can be considered as a group of stone sculptures on the opposite (right) bank of the river. Argut the old ferry boat (in the Altai-Keme Quechua). Village Keme-Quechua is low and flat, terrace above the floodplain area not exceeding 3 sq. km. It found 13 stone sculptures, ancient Turkic fences built 21, delivered four steles, arranged 5 mounds and more than a dozen ritual calculations in the form of rings, small barrows and so on. N. (Table. XXV). Of this group stand out more thorough processing, more detail hats, clothes and weapons three stone figures (Table XXV, 151, 153;. Table XXVI, 158.)

The main part of the second set up statues of Makazhana. Partly Makazhan steppe area of 4-5 square meters. km. It located on the right bank of the river. Cox, near the mouth parts. Archaeological sites in Makazhane located mainly in two opposite ends of the steppe: the mounds in the northeast, and the ancient Turkic fences in the southwest. Fences 68. In 15 of them found the whole stone sculptures (Table XXIX, 179-184;. Table XXXI, 186-192.) Or large pieces of them.

The third complex comprising several dozen ancient Turkic fences, mounds and stone ritual calculations, located on a high plateau Kyp-Chyl separating the valley of the river. Dzhazater from the mouth of the river floodplain. Ayuty. Extremely interesting are two structures near fences, on the east side of which are set realistically executed stone carvings (Table. The XXXIII, 198, 199). They are surrounded by a rampart and moat. To the west and south-west of the fences with statues is a cemetery, numbering two or three dozen of stone embankments.

VII. Chui group (47 sculptures) in the Chui valley, its origins and tributaries: Chaganburrazy, Kokorinki, Buguzu-on, TEKEL, and Barburgazy Yustyda. Several statues located in Saylyugemskoy Uzuntalskoy and steppes (between Barburgazy and Buguzuna).

In the vast steppes of Chui, occupying a significant part of Kosh-Agach, sculptures fixed at the foot of the mountains surrounding steppe from all sides. They are grouped in the main river valleys. The bulk of the stone statues located in the north-eastern part of the Chu steppe, on the border with Tuva and Mongolia. Despite the fact that many of them [Mukhor-Tarkhan (Table. XXXV, 205), Ters-Akan (Table. XXXV, 211), Ak-Tovurak (Table. XXXVI, 214), Arduni-You (Table. XXXVII, 221), Der-You (Table. the XXXVIII, 222), and so on. d.] were installed singly, they were part of some religious complex, which includes, as a rule, funerary monuments of different ages, a variety of religious calculations, including including numerous ancient Turkic fences with stelae and balbals and often petroglyphs. But the most interesting are those complexes in the Chu steppe, where sculptures met droves. For example, this can be considered an independent group of five stone statues (Table. XXXV, 206-210) of the river valley. Cha-ganburgazy included in a complex of several mounds of ancient Turkic time, and about a dozen fences.

Another characteristic of the complex is located in the middle reaches of the river. Buguzun in Maltalu tract. It focused burial mounds of early nomads and memorial structures. And the graves are arranged in the western part, and the ancient Turkic fences, statues, calculations, steles and single ritual mounds nature mainly in the eastern part of the valley. In the center of the tract highlighted typical nominal constructions of ancient Turkic nobility.

three stone sculptures were found in unusual conditions (Table. XLVI, 240-242) in a remote ravine Ceadar (between Barburgazy and Yustyda). They stood close to each other in a small rectangular fences. Three other fences, of course, directly related to the statues were built at some distance from them.

Other stone sculptures, outdoor or well-known in the north-western regions of Altai, a large part of its displaced from their original installation sites and are scattered remnants of the once numerous groups of sculptures that were part of drevnetyurkskne religious complexes. So, Anuyskaya and Charyshsky group (Table I;.. Table II, 11-18), located in the valleys of the rivers Sand, White Anouilh, Charysh and Yabogan, there were only nine sculptures. There is no doubt that in these areas used to be much more than a statue, but they have not survived to this day because of the intensive development of the steppe valleys under tillage.


A large number of stone statues discovered on the territory of Altai, testify to their well-established production. Workshops replaced stone quarries, created by nature itself. Tens or even hundreds of faults lie in the stone blocks and the right rectangular plate. They are in the ground and used to make sculptures.








CHAPTER 2

REALITIES statuesque as a source on the chronology and Ethnography

Consideration of items shown in the Altai sculptures, will set the date of the individual figures, as well as to identify the features of ethnographic clothing, hats and other realities. All images (reality) can be divided into eight groups: hats, clothes, earrings, and necklaces hryvnia, containers, belts, weapons, bags and other items.

Hats depicted mainly on statues of types 1 and 2, could be implied and sculptures type 4. They consciously chosen slabs and boulders with a conical, round or rectangular top. But, despite the expression of individual facial statues, the alleged types of hats to them are not considered, because these realities are clearly subjective. 

A variety of hats are depicted all 49 figures. Among these four basic types can be distinguished ( Fig. 3 )


Fig. 3. Hats.


Left side: 1-7 - types of hats on the statues; right side: 
I - Polovtsian helmet, 2 - Altai headdress - kolpok, 3 - skullcap, 4 - Kushan helmet on the sculpture of Taxila, 5 - Kyrgyz helmet, 6 - a headdress on the character of Varakhsha (Bukhara Sogd), 7 - Manchu helmet, 8 - a headdress in the sculpture Kul-Tegin from Kosho-Tsaidam (Mongolia), 9, 10 - Chinese headdress-Puteaux 11 - Altai fur hat, 12 - headband on a character from Afrasiab (Tocharistan-Chaganian), 13 - fitting cap on the character of Penjikent, 14, 15 - helmet on Polovtsian statues, 16 - Scythian cap on the soldier from Persepolis (Iran), 17 -. tricorn guise of Semirechye 

Type 1 Caps conical or spheroconical form, tight-fitting head are one the predominant species of hats (4 sculptures, 37, 78, 93, 99, 120, 122, 132, 133, 194, 205, 234, 246, 255). In form they resemble the most common among the nomads of Central and Middle Asia skullcaps 1. They can also be compared (in view of the generality of the outlines and some amorphous) with spheroconical helmets Polovtsian statues 2. Such metal helmets, of course, could be depicted on the Altai sculptures of warriors, so as they were widespread in the ancient Turkic army. In the Altai-like headdress survives to this day in the form of caps, called kolpuk or kolpok 3.

Type 2. The form is not very different from the type of headgear 1. Isolation of a separate type due to the presence of one more detail - a round bumps on top. Depicted on the 50 sculptures, (70, 90, 91, 95, 97, 100,112,134, 138, 146.179, 240 and 248.) The headpiece has numerous counterparts and perhaps first appeared in Eurasia as spheroconical helmets topped with a scoop of 4. The same form helmets are known for the pictures with the soldiers p. Elangash 5 and known Sulekskoy pisanitsa, which shows Kyrgyz soldiers in helmets with feathers 6. spheroconical helmet with a sleeve for plume was known not only in the Kyrgyz 7, but was used in the medieval arms of many nations in Central and Middle Asia 8. The aristocracy, officials, monks 9 and ordinary nomads were at this time a similar form of headdress made out of fur, leather or felt. We know such caps have additional decorations in the form of various kinds of pommels. On hats (pain) Mongol conquerors (Yuan Dynasty) and headgear Manchu tops decorated with peacock feathers and jewels, which are signs of differences 10 caps with fur edging, metal or brocade tops worn in the XV century. know and the palace servants and Central Asia. Round black hat (Xiao Mao) type skullcaps with black or red bumps on the top still wear in China 12. In modern Altai hats for men and women did not differ. They have a conical shape and brush of colored thread on the top 13 m. E. identical in shape type 2 hats on the statues.

3. Type ShIanochka frusto-conical statues (2, 11, 17, 48, 49, 121, 140, 141, 173, 203, 215, 218, 229) is represented not only in our series sculptures. The same form of caps are nine stone sculptures from Tuva 14, two of Mongolia's 15 and three of Semirechye 16. Almost all of them are depicted in realistic figures made generals and noble warriors.

Two sculptures (203, 209) of our series, on their heads which show such caps found in the ancient Turkic memorial structures to know that, therefore, can be attributed to their special headgear of ancient Turkic aristocracy. headgear design is not entirely clear, but one can assume that it consisted of two parts: a beanie base, tight-fitting head and sewn to it a cylindrical or truncated cone-shaped crown. The shape and design of the proposed he looks like a hat Puteaux worn in China during the Sui-Tang Dynasty 17. Messages written sources it is known that among the ancient Turkic aristocracy were distributed smart clothes and hats sent from China. Presumably, if the headgear of types 1 and 2 were in its original meaning for weather protection and entered in the defensive armament of the Turks, the headgear of this type 3 is an official decoration of having a hierarchical or ritual significance. 

This is confirmed by comparing the headgear depicted in mind the ancient Turkic commander Kul-Tegin, a ceremonial headdress tuntyanguan portraits Sung emperors 18. Hats with high cylindrical crown, covering the lower part of the head, bordered stripe on the forehead are golden ornament butterfly - a symbol the eternal cycle of time. In the frontal part of the headdress Kul-Tegin another decoration - a heraldic image of a bird, possibly Kagan is a symbol of power. Headgear Kul-Tegin, of course, different size and more detail on the headgear of type 3 on the statues of our series. Yet it seems clear that they are all copied (keeping form) Kagan hat, differing only in size, according to the statutes, the appropriate rank of the wearer. For this reason, headdress remained rare in the Middle Ages and in later times, though, and survived until the XV century, in the clothes of the nobility of Central Asia. The latter is a little low caps with a flat top and a cylindrical, rarely conical crown 19. In the Altai, and in our days, men and women are of similar shape hats, made of animal paws, with high fur band, tapering back 20.

4. Type Caps smooth, apparently metallic, tight-fitting head. Depicted on the 41 sculptures, (176, 182, 187, 193, 230). From the paintings of Penjikent, headpiece of this type has been known in Central Asia and was represented only characters with pronounced Mongoloid features 21. It is also associated with a headband, armbands on characters steppe paintings in Afrasiab Dilberdjin 22 and 23. it is possible to link it and later Polovtsian helmets hemispherical shape 24.

Type 5. This type can carry two caps depicted in sculptures and 151 153. However, they could be fighting helmets. Both spheroconical form sculptures at 153 - with the top cut off. Convex diagonal rollers are shown on the seams on Tuglie (cap) or iron bands (helmet). These hats or helmets for the first time became known in the ancient sculptures. Externally similar are shown in large numbers on the form and technique of execution on Polovtsian helmets sculpted 25.Cvoey form as they vaguely resemble the ancient Kazakh cap 26.

6. Type High headpiece (30 cm) or a conical helmet with nanosnikom 27. It occurs in one copy (statue 192). (Analogues of this headdress can be called a lot, because it follows the shape of a simple soft cap, known from ancient times to the present day, many of the nomadic peoples of Eurasia) 28. 

Type 7. It occurs in single copy (Table. III of, 23). OH finds parallels in other monuments of fine art, as, obviously, a bad copy "tricorn" headdress depicted in woman's head, with the famous boulder kudyrginskogo (Table. The XIV, 3).

Headgear has always been a staunch ethnic determinant preserve traditional conservative elements. And because the few images of different types of hats on the Altai sculptures suggest, in our opinion, not about some kind of ethnic heterogeneity of the population, who left these monuments, but rather a different social position of the image. Thus, metal helmets, possibly depicted on separate sculptures, in real life is a big-ticket items, svitedetelstvuyuschie the high social status of their owners. The same can be said about the type of caps 3, shown only on the stone figures of ancient Turkic nobility. Cap and belt of the nomads is an indispensable sign of power and nobility, such as the combination of the words "belt and cap" in ancient China, it has always been associated with the idea of ​​a career civil servant 29.

Clothes are rarely portrayed in the sculptures of the Altai. But many of the figures shows a more or less deep cut upper swing clothes, opening the neck and part of the chest (Fig. 4). Two sculptures (181, 198) Clothing detailed bilateral, triangular flaps. And on the lapels cuffs 198 sculptures shown with fasteners. Judging by these statues, it was more common style of clothes image unbuttoned on his chest, which turned away the floors and form lapels, t. E. In this case embodied one of the top ways of wearing. Two other statues (151, 153) show a second method of wearing outwear when her gates tightly buttoned at the neck.






And Maiminsky Shebalinsky region.
Table. I of 1- near the city of Gorno-Altaisk, 2 -. Baragash, 3 - Cheposh, 4-10 - Kuyus.



Ust-Kan District.
Table. II . 11 - White Anuj, 12 - Anuj, 13 - Yabogan, 14, 15 - Shiverta 16 - Sary-Koba, 17 - Karasu, 18 - Kan steppe.


Ongudaisky region (Table. III-XI).
Table. III . 19, 20 Taldushka, 21 -24 - Tenga, 25 - Kara-Koba, 26, - Ursula 27 - Kaerlyk.



Table. IV . 28 30-32.- Shibe, 29 - Ongudai 53 - Long Bomchik.



Table. V . 34, 35 - Shibe, 36, 37 - Elo, 38 - Kurota. 43.














PS. I prefare the word "Turkish" instead "Turkic", because they are Turks, and do not use the meaning of "Turkic which is= like, similar"STONEFATHER=TAŞBABA-link
altaiinter





Servet Somuncuoğlu, a documentarist says ones:

"the names in the ancient times in history, "Ahmad" or "Mehmet" or something else, but today the Westerners certainly not use the names "Turks" or "Turkish". They called as Saka/Scythian culture, Tashtyk culture, Andronov, Afenasyov etc ... but they never say Turkish. There are basic culture code. This basic cultural codes we see between the Turks, described as cultural environment. So, the followers of this culture in the archaeological sites of rock paintings in Central Asia and in Turkey, are Turkish cultural environment. Therefore, today we have to say to all of them Turkish. The upper identity is Turkish-Turk and sub-identity is Kazakh, Altai, Khakasia, etc...


For example, there are many civilizations in the Greek civilization, the site consists of a tiny little states. But the upper identity is "Greek Civilization" and appears in every subjects. Likewise, artifacts of Indian civilization, but beneath them there are hundreds little of civilizations..


The world counted 5 large ancient civilizations: Chinese, Egyptian, Greek, Indian, Mesopotamian. Of course there is a sixth civilization, and that is Turkish civilization. This reality must now be accepted as scientific. There is a Turkish civilization; with a unique style of life, nature, environment, influence on other civilizations. Create a social hierarchy state system, you can not denial it" 

The "Westerners" are proudly to say with their ethnics, and teaching also in that way, but when it comes to us, no mention of the Turks, Turkish culture or the Turks invented. Whereas, such events are a nation's civilization measure....Turkish Culture link