5 Kasım 2015 Perşembe


Alexa'nder Philale'thes - Alexander Laodicensis, first century BC.
succeeded Zeuxis as head of a celebrated Herophilean school of medicine, established in 
Phrygia between Laodicea and Carura .

Zeuxis (Zx.) first century BC.
first Zeuxis and later Alexander became leaders of a school apparently associated with (or located at) 
the temple of  MEN KAROU.


* Alexa'nder Philale'thes

(Ἀλέξανδρος Φιλαλήθης), an ancient Greek physician, who is called by Octavius Horatianus (iv. p. 102d. ed. Argent. 1532), Alexander Amator Veri, and who is probably the same person who is quoted by Caelius Aurelianus (De Morb. Acut. 2.1, p. 74) under the name of Alexander Laodicensis. He lived probably towards the end of the first century before Christ, as Strabo speaks of him (xii. p. 580) as a contemporary; he was a pupil of Asclepiades (Octav. Horat. l.c.), succeeded Zeuxis as head of a celebrated Herophilean school of medicine, established in Phrygia between Laodicea and Carura (Strab. l.c.), and was tutor to Aristoxenus and Demosthenes Philalethes. (Galen. De Differ. Puls. 4.4, 10, vol. viii. pp. 727, 746.) He is several times mentioned by Galen and also by Soranus (De Arte Obstetr. c. 93, p. 210), and appears to have written some medical works, which are no longer extant.[W.A.G]

William Smith. 
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology

* CARU'RA , (Καρουρά) a town which was on the orth-eastern limti of Caria (Strabo); its position east of the range Cadmus assigns it to Phrygia, under which country Strabo describes it. It was on the south side of the Meander 20 M.P. west of Laodiceia, according to the Table and on the great road along the valley of the Meander from Laodiceia to Ephesus. The place is identified by the hot springs, about 12 miles NW of Denizli, which have been described by Pococke and Chandler. 

Strabo observes that CARURA contained many inns, which is explained by the fact of its being on a line of great traffic, by which the wool and other products of the interior were taken down to the coast. He adds that it has hot springs, some in the Meander, and some on the banks of the river. All this tract is subject to earthquakes; and there was a story, reported by Strabo, that as a brothel keeper was lodging in the inns with a great number of his women, they were all swallowed up one night by the earth opening.

Henry William Chandler (Asia Minor) observed on the spot a jet of hot water, which sprung up several inches from the ground; and also the remains of an ancient bridge over the river. On the road between CARURA and LAODİCEİA was the temple of MEN CARUS, a Carian deity; and in the time of Strabo there was a noted school of medicine here, under the presidency of Zeuxis.

This school was of the sect of Herophilus (Strabo). Chandler discovered some remains on the road to Laodiceia, which he supposes may be the traces of this temple; but he states nothing that confirms the conjecture.

Heredotus (vii,30) mentions a place called CYDRARA, to which Xerxes came on his road from Clossae to Sardes. It was the limti of Lydia and Phrygia and King Croesus fixed a stele there with an insacription on it, which declared the boundary. 

Leake (Asia Minor) thinks that the CYDRARA of Herodotus may be CARURA. It could not be far off; but the boundary between Lydia and Phrygia would perhaps not be places south of the Meander in these parts.

* CARUS VİCUS , a place in Bithynia, on a route of the Antonine Itin., which runs from Claudiopolis in Bithynia through Cratia or Flaviopolis and CARUS Vicus to ANCYRA in Galatia. Carus Vicus was 30 M.P. from Flaviopolis.

* CARU'SA a Greek (!is it?-SB) trading place on the coast of Paphlagonia, south of Sinope, and 150 stadia from it. (Arrian,Marcian) It is also mentioned by Scylax as a Greek city; and by Pliny (vi.2). The place is Ghersch on the coast, which is identified by the name, and the distance from Sinope, Sinab (Hamilton, Asia Minor). He observes that it is a good harbour when the wind blows from the west, and he thinks that this must be the meaning of the somewhat ambiguous words of the anonymous Periplus, thougt they are rendered differently in the Latin version.

William Smith. 
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology
vol ı:    vol ıı:

Xerxes said this and made good his words, then journeyed ever onward. Passing by the Phrygian town called Anaua (*), and the lake from which salt is obtained, he came to Colossae, a great city in Phrygia; there the river Lycus plunges into a cleft in the earth and disappears, until it reappears about five stadia away; this river issues into the Maeander. From Colossae the army held its course for the borders of Phrygia and Lydia, and came to the city of Cydrara, where there stands a pillar set up by Croesus which marks the boundary with an inscription....7:30, Herodotus, The Histories 


* ZEUXIS (Zx.)

With Zeuxis and Alexander Philalethes we reach a novel stage in the history of the Herophilean school of medicine; its expansion from Hellenized Egypt into Asia Minor. In the Phyrgian region of Asia Minor near the major trading and banking centre Laodicea on the Lycus river, first Zeuxis and later Alexander became leaders of a school apparently associated with (or located at) the temple of MEN KAROU (Zx.ı)

The association of a medical school with a shrine might have been inspired by the formal cultic organization within which activities at the Alexandrian Museum were carried on, and it might also have been encouraged by the Roman authorrities in this province.

By the late Repuclican period, for example, the association of institutions of higher learning with a cult might have been encouraged by law.

The brutal expulsion of the intelligentsia from Alexandria in 145/144 BC. by the eighth Ptolemy, Euergetes II might have contributed to the dispersion of the Herophilean school. Yet by the time that Zeuxis' school became renowned in the later first century BC. other followers of Herophilus had again reasserted the scientific presence of Herophileanism in Alexandria itself. One of them, Dioscurides Phacas had even gained considerable influence with Cleopatra, with her father Auletes, and with her brother , Ptolemy XIII. Zeuxis and his followers accordingly represent only one of two centres of the school in the first century BC. but it was a centre of .....page 529

A History of Medicine: Greek medicine
Plinio Prioreschi


* Development and End of Scientific Medicine

Although so far we have discussed Herophilus as the dominant personality in the birth of scientific medicine, he was not at all an isolated case. The development of medicine in the third century BC. was not limited to the work of a few exceptional individuals: it had remarkable repercussions on common professional practice. The manifold increase in knowledge led to the specialization practice. 

The manifold increase in knowledge led to the specialization of medicine: in Alexandria there were not only physicians, but also dentists, gyneceologist and so on. Also, scientific medicine was not a phenomenon limited to Alexandria; one of Herophilus' contemporaries was Erasistratus of Ceos, whose medical activities probably took place in Antioch, in the court of Seleucus I. 

Almost all of Herophilus' main scientific interests, from anatomic dissection to neuroanatomy, from the pulse to ophthalmology, seem to have been shared by Erasistratus, and to him, too were attributed by some ancient authors the discovery of the nerves, the distinction between motor and sensory nerves, and the practice of vivisection. The fragmentary nature of the extant testimonial evidence makes it difficult to compare the contributions of the two scientistis. (for the fragments of Erasistratus see Erasistratus/Garofalo)

We know from a papyrus of the second century AD. that Erasistratus carried out at least one quantitative experiment in physiology. To prove that animals give off matter in some invisible form, he locked an animal in a container without food and compared its initial weight with the later weight of its body together with its excreta. Similar wxperiments were conducted in the seventeenth century and are considered a sign of the appearance of the modern experimental method.

Herophilus founded a school that remained active until the first century AD. According to Hyginus, one of hisimmediate disciples was Agnodice, the first woman who dared challenge, the exclusion of her sex from the medical profession. In view of Agnodice's professional success the ban against feamle physicians was lifted - an example of the role played by women in Hellenistic civilization. (among the painter there are five women. The late examples of Mary the Jewees and Hypatia indicate that scientific activities, too, were not out of the reach of women, see pliny naturalis historia XXXV)

One of the earliest and most significant representatiec of the Herophilean school was Andreas, personal physician to Ptolemy IV Philopator and perhaps an immediate disciple of Herophilus. Like the latter, Andreas had wide-ranging interest, which included for sure pharmacology, surgery and physiology. A passage of Caelius Aurelianus on a case of pantophobia suggests that he shared Herophilus' interest in mental illnes. (Caelius Aurelianus, Celeres vel acutae passiones III. further information about Andreas including a list of testimonia, see von Staden)

A machine built to order for Andreas to reduce dislocaitons of the limbs remained famous in later centuries and attests to the interactions between Alexandrian physicians and mechanicians. But already there is no clear indication that Andreas engaged in what had been Herophilus's main scientific activity: anatomic dissection. It is certain that among later members of the school, almost none practiced it.

An obvious symptom of decadence of the Herophilean school in later centuries is the increasing importance given to the exegesis of Hippocratic texts. Nonetheles throuhout its existence the school produced scientists who made important contributions to the development of knowledge in their fields of specialization. 

For example, Demetrius of Apamea studied the sexual organs, shifting in this area the focus of interest, which under Herophilus had been the description of reproductive physiology, to the treatment of ailments, Mantias, another important respresentative of the school, was probably the greatest pharmacologist of Antiquity; it seems he was the first person to prepare, describe and classify medicines obtained by combining several ingredients. (However, Plutarch states that medicines obtained by combining plant, animal and mineral ingredienst had been made by Erasistratus, who called them "the hands of the gods" (Quaestionum convivalium libri vi, 663C). This is an example of how traditions about the Herophilean and Erasistratan schools merged)

The continuing vitality of the Herophilean school in the first century AD.is attested by the work of one of its last representatives, Demosthenes Philalethes. This physician, though having written a work on the theory of heartbeats, devoted himself primarily to ophthalmology. The forty passages in which he is mentioned ascribe to him the study and cure of more than forty infirmities of the eye, from sties to glaucoma, many of which still maintain in all likelihood the names he gave them. The written works of Demosthenes Philalethes remained the foundation of knowledge about the eye throughout the Middle Ages.

After the first century AD. the Herophilean school dies out. The ensuing methodological decadence, already mentioned in connection with Galen, is even more obvious in another of the best physicians of the imperial period, Rufus Ephesius.

In his treatise "Names of the parts of the hıman body", a source of invluable testimonia on Herophilus, he scrupulously reports all the anatomical terms he knows, together with their origins. 
But Rufus' terminology is particularly exuberant regarding inessential features, such as facial hair; (Rufus Ephesius; De nominatione partium hominum:see Daremburg, Ruelle), this is a clear consequence of a passive attitude toward the terminology under discussion, which becomes very rich precisely in the case of parts of the body that, like the beard, are mentioned every day. 

Rufus not only makes no attempt to standardize this nomenclature by narrowing down the use of  ambiguous terms; he even criticizes some terms coined by Alexandrian scientists as being the creation of "Egyptian physicians" with an inadequate mastery of Greek. Other imperial-age physicians, too often quibble with Herophilus' language, whose creativity they can no longer grasp. 

Caelius aurelianus, for instance, in the same passage where he reports the Herophilean description of a mental case, has DELİRATİO and Alienatio as Latin counterparts of two words used by HEROPHILUS in his pioneer work on psychiatry, but because he ragards the words as SYNONYMOUS, he reproaches Herophilus for unwisely juxtaposing them as if they had distinct meanings. (Caelius Aurelianus, Celeres vel acutae passiones I; see von Staden)

page 156-157
The Forgotten Revolution: How Science Was Born in 300 BC and Why it Had to Reborn
by Lucio Russo, translator Silvio Levy,1996

With the Etruscan who spoke Turkish into Latin...
maybe Herophilus heard it from Scythian Turks, who also spoke Turkish...

* Hellenistic Age, in the terminology introduced by Droysen and accepted by later historians, starts in 323 BC with the death of Alexander the Great . (It might seem more logical to make the Hellenistic period start with Alexander's expedition or his reign, given that its esential new element was the fulfilmetn of Alexander's program of Hellenization of the territory of the ancient empires. The difference of a few years matters little, of course, but the -slightly morbid-choice of a starting point suggests that even Droysen shared to some extent the prejudice about 'Hellenistic decadence')

Asia Minor or West Turkey was never Hellenized till Alexander the Great and also in East Roman Empire time

*Heinrich von Staden,1989

* Herophilus the Art of Medicine in early Alexandria 
By Prof.Heinrich von Staden
in the School of Historical Studies at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, who is one of the world's foremost authorities on ancient science and medicine. His monumental book Herophilus: The Art of Medicine in Early Alexandria (1989) systematically gathers and discusses the fragmentary evidence concerning the scientist who seems to have been the first to dissect the human body. 

* Erasistratus of Teos / Sığacık (c. 304 – c. 250 BC) 
anatomist and royal physician under Seleucus I Nicator of Syria. Along with fellow physician Herophilus, he founded a school of anatomy in Alexandria, where they carried out anatomical research. He is credited for his description of the valves of the heart, and he also concluded that the heart was not the center of sensations, but instead it functioned as a pump. Erasistratus was among the first to distinguish between veins and arteries. 

He believed that the arteries were full of air and that they carried the "animal spirit" (pneuma). He considered atoms to be the essential body element, and he believed they were vitalized by the pneuma that circulated through the nerves. He also thought that the nerves moved a nervous spirit from the brain. He then differentiated between the function of the sensory and motor nerves, and linked them to the brain. He is credited with one of the first in-depth descriptions of the cerebrum and cerebellum.

* Herophilus of Chalcedon/Kadıköy (c.330-250 BC some says Nicomedia/İznik) 
is famous as one of the leading figures in the development of medicine in Ptolemaic Alexandria around the first half of the third century BC. However, his medical science seems to have intrinsic continuity of thought with Hippocratic medicine. Herophilus followed the medical principle formulated in the Hippocratic treatise "On the Nature of Man", when he made his methodological pronouncement to the effect that primary parts of the human body should be perceptible by the senses. 

Herophilus rejected cardiocentrism, introduced by his teacher Praxagoras into the medical school of Cos, and returned to Hippocratic encephalocentrism, as represented by the author of the Hippocratic treatise "On the Sacred Disease". Herophilus differentiated between the faculties of the soul and the ones attributed to the nature. In his differentiation between these two faculties, Herophilus probably had in mind the Hippocratic conception of nature as specifically applied to the domain of the human body, as distinct from the soul. Herophilus’ commitment to Hippocratic medicine is confirmed by his literary works on some of the Hippocratic texts. 

It is probable that Herophilus regarded himself as a more faithful successor than his teacher to the tradition of Hippocratic medicine. His anatomical researches on the structure and functions of the brain, motivated by his loyalty to the Hippocratic tradition, led him to innovative contributions to the development of medicine.

Herophilus of Chalcedon and the Hippocratic Tradition in Early Alexandrian Medicine
by Masahiro IMAI

M.Ö. 335'te Nicomedia bugünkü İzmit'te ( bazı kaynaklarda Kalkedonya-Chalcedon/Kadıköy)doğan Herophilos, antik çağın en önemli anatomi bilginlerinden biridir. Ptolemaios'un kendisine gönderdiği suçlular üzerinde deneyler yapmış ve anatomi biliminin ilk kavramlarını geliştirmiştir. Anatomi bilimi açısından ilk otopsiyi yapan bilim adamı olarak kabul edilmektedir. Kendi adı ile anılan ve Herophilos cenderesi adı verilen artkafa kemiğinin arka yüzündeki kavşak noktasını bulmuştur. Gözün bölümlerini, karaciğeri, dölyatağı borularını tanımlamıştır. On iki parmak bağırsağına, dil kemiğine ve akciğer toplardamarlarına ilk ad veren odur. Nabzın kalp atışlarıyla eşzamanlı olduğunu da ilk o açıklamıştır. Anadolu'da yaşamış rakibi Erasistratos (Teos/Sığacık) ile birlikte anatomi biliminin kurucusu olarak kabul edilir. Erasistratos'un hocası da Knidoslu (Datça)bir hekim olan Kyrysippos'tur. M.Ö. 6. yüzyılda bitkilerin yararları üzerine bir araştırma yapmıştır.

Ferruh Dinçkal

The earliest data indicating a settlement go back to the Early Chalcolithic period (ca. 5500 BC) and were obtained at the Kandilkırı settlement to the west. Finds from Asopos Hill belong to the Late Chalcolithic (3500s BC), Early Bronze Age (3000-2500 BC) and the Classical period (fourth century BC onward). 

The Hellenistic Laodikeia was founded by the Seleucid King Antiochus II and named after his wife Laodike about the middle of the third century BC. Pliny writes that there was a village called Diospolis first, then Rhoas at the place of the city and the Hellenistic city was founded by Antiochus II (r. 261-247 BC). The first name means “the city of Zeus” and indicates the presence of an ancient and deep-rooted sanctuary here. Rhoas, on the other hand, is an ancient Anatolian name. The Lykos Valley was left to the Pergamene Kingdom following the Peace of Apamea in 188 BC signed following the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BC. Then, in 133 BC the region was bequeathed to the Romans with the last will of the last Pergamene King Attalus III.

During the Roman Imperial period Laodikeia paid her taxes regularly and was awarded the title of temple-keeper (neokoros) by Commodus (r. 180-192) and Caracalla (r. 211-217), hence becoming tax-exempt. The title was retained during the reign of Alexander Severus (r. 222-235). Recent inscriptions uncovered in the course of excavations have shown that it was Hadrian (r. 117-138) who bestowed the title of neokoros for the first time upon Laodikeia.

Having advanced greatly in sports, arts, culture and commerce during the Roman Imperial period Laodikeia was the home of the sceptic philosophers Antiochus and Theiodus. Medical training was very important and there was a Herophilean medicine school established by Zeuxis at the time of Strabo.

The city of Laodikeia was razed to the ground by an earthquake in 494 and could not recover fully again. Another earthquake in the reign of Focas (r. 602-610) hit the city severely and the waterway from Başpınar spring was damaged.

A city, which was a settlement 7500 years ago, 
can not be named as a Greek city