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25 Eylül 2015 Cuma

Turkic tribes in Nestorian belief in Central Asia and Christian Turks










Central Zhetysu Turkic tribes in Nestorian belief 
Tang Hanedanlığı döneminde Orta Asya'da Nasturi Türkleri (çince)
Zyetysu = Turkish; Jetysu, Jeti-Su (Yedi-Su; Seven water, Seven Rivers)


Abstract 
Mid-7th century, Christianity Nie sent off in thinking zhetysu Central Asia began to spread and the faith of the Turkic tribes, the Chinese called Nestorian. Yuan Dynasty, because the rulers adopted a policy of religious tolerance, Nestorian reaching its apogee in zhetysu with other religions together form a diversified religious situation. Mid-14th century, with the Turkic tribes proselytizing Islam, Nestorian tended to annihilation. Through the study of archaeological data and literature data shows that everyday language zhetysu medieval Christians mainly Turkic dialect, and in the missionary situation is mainly used Syriac, but not the mainstream of the local Syriac language; local families generally have Christ Christians, in addition to the missionaries, believers also include other professionals, such as officers and teachers; Christian Yuan zhetysu with the Mainland of China has maintained close contact, reflecting the mutual contact and interaction. Information inscription found seven river basin reconstruction of local history of Christianity, a comprehensive understanding of the real situation of Christianity in the Yuan Dynasty in China and Central Asia, rich history of cultural exchange between China connotations are of great academic value. (google translate) Published: 2015-03-24  in Chinese link:


19th century, in the Chu River stumbled upon more than 600 pieces of Nestorian epitaph, demystifies Yuan Turkic tribes Nestorian faith. Russian scholar Daniel Shiwoersen (D.Chwolson) first decipher these inscriptions, inscription determine the language used for the classical Syriac Gospel body is the only inscription written in the form of the language is used in medieval Syria slogan - Bilingual Turkic form. 

Central Asian Turkic tribes Christian, began about AD 644. Literature that wood Lucheng (Merw, now the Republic of Turkmenistan east Mali Mali City Old City) Archbishop Elias (Elias) brought Christianity Turkic tribes. 7 century "Chronicles" (Chronicin Anonymum) believes that Ulysses "so that some Turks and others change their faith." About AD 781, the Nestorian Archbishop Timothy (Timothy) in to the Maronites (Maronites) wrote in a letter, another Turkic Khan and his subjects were converted to Christ: "The Turks Khan and almost all of the subjects have given up the old idolatry, converted to Christ. And he also asked us to write a letter to his country ordained an archbishop, we have done so. "Timothy gave Laban Searle Gisborne (Rabban Sergius) The letter also mentioned that he had appointed a bishop for the Turks, "when the Holy Spirit has established the archbishop of Turks."

Turkic Christian literature is found in Dunhuang, the only identifiable Sogdian Fragments of a style of Christian literature is plain text, presumably Word text books and the like.  However, several secular instruments unearthed in Dunhuang written by not only Christians, but also referred to the Christians, including priests and monks. One of them is believed a priest named Sal Guise, he postscript entrusted with the Turkic name of a friend of Earl Baars (El Bars). 

from Central zhetysu and Turpan literatures , Dunhuang literature allows us to see more clearly the Christian Sogdian Turks continue to be assimilated, and eventually fused to it. Centuries later, when Marco Polo mentioned Turkic Nestorian Dunhuang area, which may also include the descendants of these Sogdian Document Christians.


Related records from the 13th century Europeans travel and history books in China, we can see the situation in the Yuan Dynasty Nestorianism flourished. According to the "Marco Polo", from the east of Kashgar until Beijing, along the road are everywhere Nestorian believers, churches throughout China, such as Mongolia, Gansu, Shanxi, Yunnan, Hejian, Fuzhou, Hangzhou, Changshu, Yangzhou, Zhenjiang, place. 


Zhetysu Nestorian epitaph time exists, and the Mongol Empire in Central Asia dominated the time basically. The earliest tombstones stand in 1200 or 1201, earlier than Genghis Khan's time to become Mongolia (1206). 1227, Genghis Khan's death, the Mongol Empire were ruled by their descendants. Chagatai was closed Chagatai Khanate, ruled the region include Ma Wala area (Mawara un-nahr, more history known as the "River Area"), zhetysu and the Tarim Basin. 1244, Chagatai died Khanate increasingly unstable, early 14th century, split into two parts, the western called "Ma Lanna children" east known as the "Mogul Stan children." 

Our understanding of the Central Asian Nestorianism, generally based on the following data: First description Nestorian and Syrian Eastern Churches Syriac, Arabic literature; the second is Muslim geographers and historians of the book; third is Christ and Central Asia Christians have been in contact with travelers reports; Fourth Syriac discovered in Xinjiang, China, Sogdian, Uighur language literature; five cultural relics archaeological discoveries; the Sixth Central Syriac Christians left tombstone inscriptions. The main source of information Nestorians tombstone has two, one of seven river basin, especially the Chu River (now in northern Kyrgyzstan), the second is the ancient city and its vicinity Huocheng County of Almaliq.

Zhetysu is an important part Chagatai Khanate, the local population is likely to mixing by the Turkic tribes, including the Uighur Turks and Karahan. William Rub Luke (William of Rubruck) mentioned in great detail Uighur residents here are Christian.

"There are many Nestorian priests around, playing musical instruments, singing the praises of", "Uighurs Uighurs in Nestorians use in the liturgy language, and with its text books; they all have a view of the city's Christians and they mixed " in a tombstone in the archaeological excavations, the tomb of the Uighur identity is pastor.  Therefore, it is concluded that, Chu River cemetery is the burial Turkic tribes most believers.

Shiwoersen Kanbu tombstone inscriptions, approximately 30 inscriptions of all or part of the Turkic language, which illustrate everyday language is Turkic local residents. In addition, the text of both Syrian inscription written horizontally, but also straight book, the ancient form of body Uyghur Newly adopted reflects the impact of, because it was still in use in parts of Central Asia Uighur Scripts.

By analyzing the inscription shows, tombstone owner is Nestorian Christians. These people mostly Turkic tribes, most died of 13-14 centuries. According Shiwoersen calculations, the 300 men, 120 served as a certain position in the church. Yuan, Almaliq was one of the central activities of Nestorian date headstones were found more than 30 pieces. In the seven river basin unearthed more than 630 pieces of headstones among the Syriac Nestorians, at least seven tombstone inscriptions indicate the tomb of place of origin as "Almaliq",  showed Nestorians zhetysu with Almaliq has close contact.

From the language point of view, 13-14 century, seven River in ancient Turkic medieval Turkic transition. Since the beginning of the 9th century, Uighur language is the main language here, and in time became the official language of the Mongol Empire, then its importance waning. The official language haka Virginia Karahan language stems from the 11th century, is the oldest Islamization Turkic written. The Timurid period, which gradually replaced the two languages ​​Chagatai Turkic language. 

River found seven hundreds Syriac Nestorian headstone widespread use of double dating system, namely Greece and Chinese calendar (or Turks) Zodiac calendar. peach stone inscriptions dating, namely Chinese zodiac calendar, zodiac calendar is consistent with the Turks, and the reason is that the ancient Turkic peoples of Central Plains dynasties maintained close political, economic and cultural ties. Only a few inscriptions dating system appears only Syria. Most of the inscriptions using Syriac Syriac recorded or Syriac - Turkic bilingual.

According to some Turkic inscription on the tombstone of the Syrian text inference, Uighur language in religious occasions, there is a certain use, Turpan found in Christian writing this confirms this. Almaliq tombstone inscriptions unearthed there are some Turkic language, it can be inferred that the local population should be the mother tongue or other Turkic Uighur language. Below, we seven tombstone inscriptions, for example, be specifically addressed this issue.

Inscriptions one: the Russians NNPantusov 1902 in China in Yining collected a Almaliq unearthed Nestorian headstone, incised mark Nestorian and Syriac Syriac, which crosses the lotus seat, lotus seat is with the following Zoroastrianism features six platform, cross each side faces a Chinese angel on the left and six lotus pedestal has three lines of Syriac, on the right there are two lines of Syriac. Russian scholar 科科夫佐夫 There have been studies, but did not provide Syriac inscriptions or phonetic transliteration. [54]





Original simulation:
Phonetic: 1.1.Bšnt tryg ’lksnd 2.rws’nd wnpq mn‘lm’ 3.hn’ nstwrys   4.mpšqn’’ ksgyst’  5.br kry’ ymyn’
Translation:. "Alexander calendar 1613 (AD 1301-1301 years), they go and get rid of this Nestorius (Nestorianism) world he is (" Bible ") Commentary home, admirable Karia son. "





Inscriptions II: The British Museum has a seven river basin in Central Asia found Nestorian Syriac inscriptions, numbered PS352510, Syriac Syriac inscriptions, the year 1289 can be broken on his behalf.
Phonetic: 1.bšnt ’tr hw’ [bšnt] ’wd  2.hnw qbrh  3.msh wt qš’
Translation: "[Greek calendar] 1600 (AD 1289), Year of the Ox, which is the pastor Max Wood (Muswut) of the tomb."
Inscriptions Three: Tashkent State Museum of History of Uzbekistan preserved a tombstone, on behalf of 1261- 1262 can be broken.





Translation: "1672 [AD 1316], eclipse, the Turks dating Long (luu) years, which is famous (" Bible ") Commentary home and evangelists and for all of the monastery added a brilliant Shi Riha (Sheliha) of the tomb. he is a family Bible commentary Peter (Peter) son. he enjoys the name of his wisdom and his sound if the bells when the preaching. May God put his soul wisdom and integrity of people and their ancestors together and let him enough to share everything with honor. "







Six inscriptions: Almaliq monument from the cemetery, the earliest study by the 科科夫佐夫 and Kanbu in 1905,  Zhu Margaret Love later also published research results.  The text also Syriac inscriptions, but the language of the Uighurs - Turkic, Turkic tribes deceased King Christian female pastor. (Le texte Turc en caratères Syriaques)













A large number of Nestorian cultural relics unearthed in Quanzhou, Fujian Province.


- 1619, Nestorian monument discovered in Quanzhou.
- 1941, unearthed Uighur text Nestorians tombstone, Quanzhou.
- 1963, 1946 Nestorian Syriac tombstone, Quanzhou.
- "Nestorian" Christians of the Tang Dynasty "graveyard."


Nestorius ( Patriarch of Constantinople in 428 b.380 - d.451), one said that he was born in Syria, he proposed "two natures of Christ" that the Virgin Mary is the flesh of Jesus birth, rather than grant divinity of Jesus, and therefore opposed to her as divine worship.The Nestorians reached Central Asia and other places after 6th century, has been popular between the Turks. (look for, Nestorius and Archbishop Cyrillus of Alexandria :Council of Ephesus AD 431).  in Chinese link:








Culture of Christian Turks







And:
KARAMANANIAN ORTHODOX TURKS ON HISTORICAL DATAS



In the past, Budhism, Maniheism, Jewish, Christianity and Islam could spread among the Turkish people from the inner Asia towards the Balkans. In this manner, It is known that the Nestorianity could reach Asia and the some Turkish people accepted the Nestorian Christianity and also a Turk from Horasan became the patriarch of the Nestorian Church for a time(1281-1317). Beside that, ıt is also known that Turks like Huns, Bulgarians, Pecheneks, Uzes and Cuman-Kıpchaks living in the North of Black Sea and in Balkans were in the interest of Byzantine Church. With the misson of this Church some Turkish people mentioned above accepted Orthodox Christianity. 

This was an important event for the Orthodox Church in the missionary manner but it was important in administrative manner for Byzantine Empire too. The emergence of Turks in Balkan regions created serious problems fot the Byzantine Empire. So, the Byzantines first tried to use one Turkish group against the other. In time, these Turks became a member of Byzantine army too. But before enrolling in the army, they must convert to Christianity. 

Because ıt was the prerequisite of enrolling in Byzantine army. So, they accepted Christianity and then enrolled in Byzantine army. Later, they were settled particularly at the border lands of Byzantine Empire in Anatolia, against first Arabs and Persians and then to the Turks coming from the east. In this manner, it is wellknown that there were Turkish soldiers in Byzantine army at Malazgirt Battle in 1071 and later in Mryakefalon Battle took place between Byzantine and Seljuks. The Byzantine Chronicals gives some details about these Turks enrolled in Byzantine army.

Beside the mission of Byzantine Church, because of the missionary activities of Roman Church, the Catholic Christianity was accepted by some Turks living especially at the North of Black Sea. The Codex Cumanicus is an important historical data for Catholic missionary towards these Christian Turks. So, because of the missionary movements of Roman Catholic Church, Byzantine Orthodox Church and Nestorian church, the Christianity could spread among Turkish people living in an area streched from the inner Asia to Balkans.

In this perspective, there was a Christian group in Anatolia called Karamanians under the reign of Ottoman Empire. They were the members of Greek Orthodox Church. They lived particularly in the inner part of Anatolia, in Cappadocia which had been the border between Byzantine and ıts enemies coming from the east like Arabs and Turks, and in some other regions of Anatolia. 

Though they were Orthodox Christians and the members of Greek Orthodox Church in Istanbul, they did not speak Greek, even not knew any Greek word. Instead they spoke Turkish and prayed in Turkish. Their names were genuine Turkish names, different even from Muslim Turks Who, in many times, had Arabic or Persian names. Beside that, their customs and rituals were the same as their Muslim neighbours .

The question that Who the Karamanian Christians are has been an important subject of history. There are two thesis about their origins. One of them is that the Karamanian Christians were Greek people of Anatolia, because of the pressure of Turkish administration, they forgot their mother tongue and begun to speak Turkish. Beside that, the trade relations between Muslim and Christians motivated them to speak Turkish too. The other thesis is that they were the Christian Turks.

In this context, there are some questions: Was there any relation between Karamanians and the Christian Turks enrolled in Byzantine army and settled at the Byzantine frontiers against Arabs, Persian and Turks? Or were there any Turks converted to Christianty in Anatolia? Who were the Karamanians? Why did they declare their independence from the Greek Orthodox Church and establish an independent church in Kayseri under the leadership of Papa Eftim and denounce the Greek invasion of Anatolia during the Turkish National Struggle period? Why did they publish a newspaper named the ‘voice of the Orthodoxy in Anatolia’ (Anadolu’da Ortodoksluk Sadası) and declare that they were not Greeks but Turks. And Why did they support wholeheartedlly the Turkish National Government in Ankara?

It is known that the Gagauzes are the Christian Turks and that there is a link between Gagauzes and Anatolian Turks. The developments took place after the throne conflict between İzzeddin Keykaus and his brother Kılıçarslan II, explained this relation clearly. If so, Is it possible to think that Karamanians with their Turkish language, names, customs and rituals, are also the Christian Turks? Because it is known that beside the Turkish soldiers coming from the North of Byzantine Empire like Bulgarians, Pecheneks, Uzes and Cumans, there was a group of soldiers in Byzantine army under the name of “Turcopols” who were the real Turcomans of Anatolia. They, like the other Turks, first converted to Orthodox Christianity and then enrolled in the Byzantine army. 

It is well known that the Turcopols were an important part of Byzantine army particularly in 13th and 14th centuries. The historical sources of Ottoman Empire like Ottoman Şeriye Sicilleri and Tapu Tahrir Defterleri pointed out that there was an undinaible Christian population with Turkish names in many parts of Anatolia, especially in the lands where Karamanoğulları ruled before the Ottomans in inner and the sothern part of Anatolia too. 

Today, Karamanians are living in Greece. They sent to Greece according to the population excange agreement signed between Turkey and Greece during the Lousanne Confrence in 1923. According to this agreement the Muslim population of Greece except the western Trace sent to Turkey and the Orthodox population of Turkey, except Istanbul, sent to Greece. Though they were sent to Greece and living there today, they have been never accepted as Greek with their Turkish language, names and customs.They called always “Turkospori”, Turkish descendants, in Greek society.

So, in this article, it is tried to evaluate the Karamanian Orthodoxes under the light of datas of fieldwork performed in Greece in 2000 and of the datas in historical sources and it can be pointed out clearly that the Karamanian Christian peoples are not the Greeks lost their mother tongue but they were the Christian Turcomans of Anatolia.




Doç.Dr.Yonca ANZERLİOĞLU
Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Velî Araştırma Dergisi / Sayı 51
PDF: (in Turkish)














Aktamar Church on Van Lake belongs to the Christian Turks and not Armenians
AKDAMAR- HIRİSTİYAN KIPÇAK TÜRKLERİ'NİNDİR









So, we can not say or think:
 "all Christians are indo-germans or europeans" ;)











EK:


Birinci Efes Konsülü 431 yılında (İkinci Efes Konsili 449'dadır)  Efes Meryem Ana kilisesinde, İstanbul Patriği Nestorius'un tartışmalı öğretileri yüzünden toplanmıştır. İskenderiye Patriği Cyril, Nestorius'u sapkınla suçlayarak Papa I. Celestine'e başvurmuştur. Papa da aynı fikirde olup, Cyril'e Nestorius'un fikrini değiştirmesi için çalışmasını yoksa aforoz edileceğini bildirmesi için yetki vermiştir. Çağrı gelmeden önce, Nestorius İmparator II. Theodosius'u kendisinin karşı görüşlerini tartışabileceği genel bir konsil toplaması için ikna etmiştir. Konsil'de yaklaşık 250 piskopos bulunmuştur. Konferans, karşılıklı meydan okuma ve birbirini suçlama atmosferinde geçmiştir. Doğu ve Batı Ortodoksları, Roma Katolikleri ile bir çok diğer batı hristiyanlarının 3. ekümenik konsülü olarak kabul edilir. Diğer taraftan, Efes, Doğu Kilisesi (İngilizce: Church of the Orient) tarafından red edilmiştir.


Nestorius, İsa'ya 30 yaşındayken Kelam'ın indiğini, ancak o zamandan sonra İnsan ve Tanrı karakterlerini taşıdığını, Meryem'in, Tanrı olan İsa'nın değil, insan olan İsa'nın annesi olduğunu söylemiş ve dolayısıyla da, Meryem'e "Tanrı'nın annesi" (Theotokos) denmesine karşı çıkmış ve Tanrı'nın doğrulamayacağını, doğurulmadığını belirtmiştir. Nestorius'a göre İsa'nın insani kimliği ile tanrısal kimliği birbirinden ayrıdır; bu nedenle Nestorius öğretisi bazı kaynaklarda diofizit ("iki tabiatçı") olarak adlandırılır. Bu görüşe göre çarmıha gerilirken tanrısal tabiat İsa'dan ayrılmış, sadece insan olan İsa acı çekmiş, çektiği acılar Tanrı olan İsa'ya dokunmamıştır.




EFES KONSİLİ - NESTORİUS - CYRİL



... Nestorius, eğitimini Antakya'da almış ve burada Euprepios manastırına girerek papazlığa yükselmiştir. Antakya ilahiyat okulunun en meşhur temsilcilerinden olan Mopsuestialı Theodore'un öğrencisi olup olmadığı belli değildir. Hitabeti ve şöhreti Antakya sınırlarını aşan Nestorius, 10 Nisan 428 yılında İstanbul'a patrik olarak atanmıştır.


Görevinin daha ilk yılında kendisini Hz.Meryem ile ilgilibir tartışmanın ortasında buldu. Tartışmada Hz.Meryem'e Tanrı doğuran anlamında Theotokos unvanı verenler bir yanda yer alıyor ; diğer tarafta is Hz.Meryem'in sadece bir insanın annesi (Anthropotokos) olduğunu vurgulayanlar bulunuyordu.


Nestorius Theotokos unvanının kullanımını reddetmemekle birlikte, bunun tek başına kullanılmasının, doğabilecek bazı yalnış anlamları düşünerek, ihtiyatla karşılanması gerektiğini düşünmüştür. Bu noktada zekice sayılabilecek bir çözüm yolu bularak Meryem'e "Mesih'i doğuran" anlamında Christotokos unvanı verilmesini önermiştir. Bunu önerirken, Mesih isminin hem isnana hem de Tanrı'ya işaret etmesinden yararlanmak istemiş olmalıdır. 


Taraflar bu öneriye sıcak bakıp mesele çözüme kavuşturuldu sanılırken, Nestorius'un bir konuşması esnasında söylediği "Tanrı'nın bir annesi olamaz. Yaratılmış olan hiçbir varlık Tanrı'yı doğuramaz. Meryem sadece biri insan doğurmuştur, Tanrı'yı değil. Tanrı'nın dokuz ay boyunca bir kadının rahminde taşındığı, bebek elbiseleri giydiği, acı çektiği, öldüğü ve gömüldüğü söylenemez." şeklindeki sözleri konunun tekrar alevlenmesine yol açtı.


Bu ifadeleri nedeniyle Nestorius, Samosatalı Pavlus'un takipçisi olarak görüldü.


Theotokos kelimesi odaklı tartışmada Antakyalı Nestorius'un karşısındaki isim İskenderiye patriği Cyril olmuştur. Cyril'e göre birleşmeden sonra İsa Mesih'in iki ayrı doğasının olduğundan bahsedilirse ve "insani doğaya ait özelliklerin ilahi doğaya ya da ilahi doğaya ait özelliklerin insani doğaya bağlanması mümkün değil" denilirse, bu durumda kurtuluşun sırrı küçümsenmiş olur. Böyle düşünüldüğünde, Mesih'in çektiği acılar ve kurtarıcı eylemleri, bedenleşmiş Tanrı'ya değil sadece bir insana ait olacaktır. Yine bu düşünce takip edilirse, evharistiya ayininde yenilen ekmek, Tanrı'nın değil insanın bedeni olacaktır. Bu noktada Cyril, Nestorius ve taraftarlarını yamyamlıkla suçlamaktadır.


Her iki taraf da Roma'nın desteğini alabilmek için Papa Celestine'e (Papalık yılları 422-432) mektup göndermiştir. 430 yılı Ağustosunda Roma'da yerel bir sinod toplayan Papa, Theotokos kelimesinin kulllanılabileceğini ilan etmiştir. 11 Ağustosta karar her iki tarafa da mektupla gönderilmiş ve mektubu aldığı günden itibaren Nestorius'a görüşlerinden vageçmesi için 10 gün süre tanınmıştır. 


Cyril de bu süreçte İskenderiye'de bir sinod toplayarak Nestorius için oniki maddelik bir afaroz gerekçesi çıkararak bunu bir mektupla Nestorius'a bildirmiştir.


Tartışmanın büyümesi üzerine İmparator II.Theodosius 7 Haziran 431'de Efes'te bir konsilin toplanmasına karar verdi.


Cyril konsilde üstünlüğü sağlamak için Mısır'dan fazla sayıda piskoposla toplantıya katıldı. Ayrıca konsilden önce Efes piskoposu Memnon'u ikna edip onun desteğini almayı da başardı. Birinci Efes Konsili, Mısırlı ve Efesli piskoposların katılımıyla, belirlenen tarihten onbeş gün sonra, 22 Haziran'da Antakya ve Roma temsilcilerinin gelmesi beklenmeden gayr-i nizami bir şekilde başladı.


Cyril Antakya ve Roma temsilcilerinin gecikmesini fırsat bildi ve doğal oalrak başkanı olduğu konsilde hemen Nestorius'u mahkum eden bir karar çıkardı. Bu kararla Nestorius görevinden alındı ve "Yeni Yahuda" ilan edildi.


Nestorius, konsil başladığında Efes'te olduğu halde, antakya temsilcilerinin beklenmemesini protesto ederek, kendisini mahkum edecek olan açılış oturumuna katılmadı. Dört gün sonra 26 Haziran'da Antakyalı piskoposlar Efes'e geldiler ve onlar da Nestorius ile birlikte kendi konsillerini yaparak Cyril ve Efes piskoposu Memnon aleyhine kararlar aldılar. Son olarak Roma temsilcileri Efes'e ulaştılar ve Cyril'in tarafında yer aldılar. 


Farklı iki toplantıda alınan birbirine zıt kararlar imparatora bildirildi. İmparator her iki grubun temsilcilerini dinledikten sonra, Efes'te kendisini temsilen ikinci vekil gönderdi. Kont John adındaki bu yetkili, Nestorius, Cyril ve Memnon'u görevden aldığını açıkladı ve üçünü de sorguya aldı. 


Nestorius'u sorgulamak üzere onun görüşlerine eğilimi olan bir kişiyi görevlendirdi. Cyril'in sorgulanmasının ise daha zorlu geçtiği ifade edilmektedir. Ağustos ayı sonunda İmparator II.Theodosius kararını verdi. Buna göre, Nestorius, Antakya'ya, kendi manastırına gönderildi. Cyril beraat ederek İskenderiye'ye döndü. Nestorius'un yerine, İstanbul patrikliğine Cyril'in hoşuna gidecek bir isim, Maximian tayin edildi. Memnon da Efes piskoposluğu görevine devam etti.


Nestorius, eserinde bu olayı anlatırken, Cyril'in kont John'a ve onun aracılığıyla imparatora çok para verdiğini veya teklif ettiğini dile getirmektedir. Nestorius'un bu tanıklığı belki o zamana kadar Nestorius'u destekleyen imparatorun neden tavır değiştirdiğini açıklayan bir ipucu olarak görülebilir.


Birinci Efes Konsili teolojik bir sorunu çözmek amacıyla toplanmış olmasına rağmen, pratikte tarafların birbirni aforoz ettikleri bir kavga ortamına dönüşmüştür. İmparatorun müdahalesiyle konsil sonuçlandırılmış ; ama çıkan sonuş teolojik değil, tartışmanın tarafları olan İstanbul, İskenderiye ve Efes patriklerinin akıbetinin belirlenmesi şeklinde olmuştur. Bu gerçeğe vurgu yapan Friedrich Loofs (ö1928) Efes'te herhangi bir dogmatik meselesinin çözüme kavuşturulamamasından hareketle, Birinci Efes Konsili'nin ekümenik bir konsil olarak değerlendirelemeyeceğini iddia etmektedir.


Birinci Efes Konsili'nden sonra ikiye bölünmüşlüğü ortadan kaldırmak için bazı teşebbüsler yapılmış ve bu çabaların sonucunda 433 yılında bir anlaşmaya varılabilmiştir. Buna göre Theotokos unvanının kullanımı, Nestorius'un görevden alınması kararı kabul edilmiştir.


Kristolojik açıdan bakıldığında Cyril'in savunduğu "birleşmeden sonra İsa Mesih'te tek bir doğa vardır" şeklindeki düşünceden vazgeçilmiş, bunun yerine Antakya ilahiyat okulunun görüşü olan "İsa Mesih'te iki doğanın birleşmesi" formülü benimsenmiştir. 


Ayrıca Cyril de Nestorius'a yönelik yazdığı oniki aforoz da geri çekmek zorunda bırakılmıştır. Sonuçta , Nestorius İstanbul patrikliği görevinden azledildi ve İmparator II.Theodisius'un emriyle Antakya'daki manastırına gönderildi. Burada dört yıl kaldıktan sorna 435 yılında Kuzey Mısır'da Oasis 'e sürgüne gönderildi. 450'de Theodosius ölünceye kadar burada sürgün hayatı yaşadı. Ne kadar yaşadığı kesin olarak bilinmemesine karşın 451 gibi öldüğü varsayılıyor.


*Nestorius ve Kristolojisi - Yrd.Doç.Dr.Muhammet TARAKÇI devamı PDF:





1275-1279. 1287-1288. Rabban Bar Sauma and Markos. Önggüd (Turkish) Nestorian monks who traveled from Tai-tu, Qubilai Khan's northern capital, to the Middle East, via the southern branch of the Silk Road (through Khotan and Kashgar). Although on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem (which they never reached), they seem to have had official sponsorship from the Khan. Once in the Mongol Ilkhanid realms, they became involved in Nestorian church politics, and Markos eventually was elected head of the church as Patriarch Mar Yaballaha III. Bar Sauma was sent to the West as an emissary of the Ilkhanid ruler Arghun in 1287, with the goal of concluding an alliance against the Mamluks. Bar Sauma's writings were preserved in an abridged translation into Syriac, from which there are several translations into modern languages. As Rossabi notes, "His narrative remains the only one of its era to provide an East Asian perspective on European ways and rites," even though it is somewhat disappointing in detail about life in the places through which he traveled. 








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