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27 Haziran 2015 Cumartesi

Hakasya Bronz Plakalar - Umay Ana





"Sibirya'nın Türkçe konuşan halkları arasında küçük ok ve yay, Umay - dişi ruh - çocukların koruyucusu- kültü ile ilişkilidir. Özellikle yaygın olan fikir, çocukların yakınına gelen kötü ruh Umay'ın okuyla öldürülüyor."
" Hakasya'da yenidoğanların, beze sarılı küçük ok ve yay modelleri beşiğine yerleştirilir."













At the Turkic-speaking peoples of Siberia small images bow and arrow were associated with 
the cult Umay - female spirit - guardian of the children. Particularly widespread was the idea that Umai archery 
in an evil spirit that comes close to the child.

Khakassia in the XIX century. model bows and arrows wrapped in a cloth and placed in the cradle of the newborn boy. 



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Among the random finds from Khakass-Minusinsk depression are three miniature bronze plaque in the form of a complex onion sigmaobraznoy form with holes for the boom and one pendant depicting illuminated with a protruding end of a bow (Fig. 21). These plaques are of particular interest, since so far no remains of bows in the burials Tagar era were found. An idea of the Tagar bows can only indirectly on such data as their images in bronze, on cave paintings, as well as on the basis of consideration of the shape and size of arrows close to the Scythian.


Plaques reproduce short bows Scythian type, like a stretched letter M, with long, strongly curved towards the back ends and the middle concave. Scythian bows are well known for the many images on metal objects from the rich Scythian burial mounds, on ancient coins, stone sculptures, the drawings on Greek vases. Along with close to him variants bows Scythian type were common in ancient Scythia beyond itself in the vast territory from Greece to Siberia. At the end of the era of the Tagar replace short come longbows "Hun" type.


The miniature bronze bows, such as those discussed in this article are known among vyat antiquities Ananyino culture in the Ural Savromats among the ancient inhabitants of the modern neighborhoods of Tomsk. A similar form of miniature bronze bow was found on the mound Buyskikh IV-III centuries. BC is located on the right bank of the river. Vyatka. The famous bronze plaques that adorn the leather quiver from the mound near the village. Blagoslovenskogo near Orenburg, the researchers attributed to the IV. BC. Seven of these miniature bows contained in collective of the same period of the neighborhood Stepanovka near Tomsk. Thus, the possible date for the published plaques IV-III centuries. BC.


Miniature bronze bow in a special case, burn, similar to the suspension, found in s. Lobsters of Tatarstan, seem to belong to the same time. Bronze Votive picture onion burn 4.2 cm long, 2.5 cm wide was found in the burial Prokhorov time on the Lower Volga.


Tagar bronze pendant reproduces the onion in the burn, which has the shape of a half bow. The shape is determined by the shape of complex Gorita bow, so not only in ancient peoples - the Persians, Medes, Scythians, ananintsev, the population of Tuva Scythian - but also in the recent past of the peoples of Siberia key lights were quite similar in form. A feature Tagar Gorita is an acute-angled protrusion at the bottom corresponding to the folded forward, toward the back, the end of the bow, as opposed to Scythian (Fig. 22), and lights up the royal guards at the Persepolis reliefs, which had a smooth, often oval outline bottom. Clarify the methods of carrying Gorita help petroglyphs. Tagartsy hung case for a bow to the belt (Fig. 23) appears on the left, like the other peoples of antiquity.


For what created thumbnails onions? The answer to this question lies, I believe, in ethnographic evidence. According to the hypothesis DK Zelenin, the simplest tools of primitive human society, serves as an instrument of labor or tools of attack and at the same time drink for defense purposes, in representations of primitive man received over time the function of amulets or talismans. This gun was ascribed magical ability to protect people from enemies and avert scare away evil spirits.


In the Siberian ethnographic literature witnessed numerous cases of the use of bow and arrow as a magic cult guns. So, until the shaman's drum instrument in Altai religious activities were a bow and arrow. Ritual with onions produced all the northern Altai until very recently. Among the paintings there are images Shor shaman holding a tambourine in one hand and the other with a bow and arrows. Suspension of onions in the XIX century. preserved in a suit Altai shamans.


Luke was also an attribute of the Buryat shamans. The ancient predecessors Khakases also used the bow as a weapon of cult activities, as evidenced by petroglyphs shamans with sophisticated bows (Fig. 24). In the view of some Siberian peoples image bows were amulets. Gilyaks put on chest like a Christian cross a small onion and arrow. The images of bows on vintage wooden boxes Khakassian have, apparently, the same protective value.


At the Turkic-speaking peoples of Siberia small images bow and arrow were associated with the cult Umay - female spirit - guardian of the children. Particularly widespread was the idea that Umai archery in an evil spirit that comes close to the child.


In Buryatia cradles cut onion image overlaid with the arrow, as if ready to fly. Altai hung iron sheaves to the cradle - Gilyaks hung onions or model of cradle to drive away evil spirits. Khakassia in the XIX century. model bows and arrows wrapped in a cloth and placed in the cradle of the newborn boy.

Now, not only published plaque provide a glimpse of the Tagar onions and burn, but in some way shed light on the ideological representation of the ancient society.


Bronze plaques in the form of an onion of Khakassia.
М.А. Дэвлет // KSIA. Vol. 107. 1966. pp 70-74.
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