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23 Nisan 2018 Pazartesi

Türk Kültürüne Hayran bir Çin Prensi




Saluzi, İmparator Taizong'un atı - 636-649 - Tang Dönemi
Zhao Mausoleum, Shaanxi Province, China
(Turkish tradition : Knot on horsetail)




"Türk halklarının kültürü ve ölüm konusu da dahil olmak üzere gelenekleri, çeşitli devirlerde hep yabancı halkların ve Orta Asya'da özellikle Çinlilerin ilgisini çekmekteydi. Çin kaynaklarında bu konulara dair bilgiler bulunması bunu göstermektedir. Hatta bazı Çin belgelerinde bu etkilenmenin hayranlığa dönüştüğü de anlaşılmaktadır. Bu bakımdan bir Çin prensi olan Ç'ang-şan Prensi (Li) Ç'en-k'ien'in biyografisi ilgi çekicidir.

"Ç'ang-şan prensi (Li) Ç'eng-k'ien, imparator T'ai-tsung'un en büyük oğluydu... İmparator T'ai-tsung tahta çıktığında (Li) Ç'eng-k'ien veliaht ilan edildi. O zamanlar henüz sekiz yaşındaydı.. (henüz küçükken) T'u-küe'lerin (Türklerin yani Göktürklerin) dilini ve giysilerini seviyordu; barbarlara (T'u-küe'lere) en çok benzeyenleri oyun arkadaşı olarak seçiyor ve onlara koyun postu ve kurt başı giydiriyordu; her bir grup beşer kişiden oluşuyor, çadırlar kuruluyor ve üzerinde kurt başı olan beş sancak dikiliyordu; mızraklar dağıtılıyor ve savaş oyunu oynanıyordu; flamalar ve bayraklar bağlanıyordu. Kendisine bir çadır kuruyor ve içinde oturuyordu. Gruplarına koyun getirtiyor ve onları pişirtiyordu. Sonra hepsi hançerlerini çıkartıyor, bunlarla et kesip yiyorlardı. (Li) Ç'eng-k'ien (birgün) kağanın ölümünü taklit etti. Bu sırada adamlarına yüksek sesle ağlamalarını ve yüzlerine kesik atmalarını emretti. Sonra atlarının üstünde dört nala onun etrafında döndüler. Bunun üzerine birden kalktı ve şöyle dedi: 'İmparatorluğa hükmedebildiğimde on binlerce atlının başına geçip K'in-ç'eng'e gideceğim. Bunun ardından topuzumu açacağım ve (a-şi-na) Sse-mo'ya teslim olacağım. Onun yanında bir şad olabilsem bu güzel olmaz mıydı?' Etrafındaki adamlar birbirine fısıldayarak ona büyü yapılmış olduğunu söylediler."


Prof.Dr.Yaşar Çoruhlu
Eski Türklerin Kutsal Mezarları Kurganlar




* Tai-tsung: Li Shimin, İmparator Taizong ya da Tai Tsung olarak da tanılır. 626-649 yılları arasında iktidarda kalmıştır. Li Shimin 617 yılında babası Li Yuan önderliğinde en önemli rakiplerini yenerek Sui Hanedanı'nı devirerek Tang Hanedanı'nı kurmuştur. Tacın varisi olan Li Chengqian (Gaoming, Li Ç'eng-k'ien, 619-645) Türk adetlerine düşkünlüğü yüzünden imparator Taizong'un gözünden düşer. Chenqian'ın yerine Li Tai'yı ilan edecekken, Li Tai general Hou Junji ile babasını devirmek ister, başarılı olamaz. Taizong generalin rütbesini düşürülür, oğlu Li Tai ise Chenqian'ın düşüşünden sorumlu tutulur ve Taizong başka bir oğlunu, Li Zhi'yi varis ilan eder. Chenqian ise sürgüne gönderilir ve orada ölür.

* Türklerin Uzakdoğu Siyasi ve Kültür Tarihine Etkileri
Prof.Dr.Alimcan İnayet / link
Türk Dünyası İncelemeleri Dergisi, cilt VIII, 2008
* Resim için (Türk etkisinden bahsetmez!):

SB



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[[The articles below are originally in Chinese- SB.]]

"The influence of the Turks on China was mainly during the Sui and Tang dynasties, and there were not many historical records."

Zhaoling Six Jun is a rare stone carving in the Middle Ages and has a unique artistic style. Liu Jun had accompanied Tang Taizong on the battlefield, was born and died, and repeatedly built military exploits. Some of them walk through the storm, others run across the river, their postures are different, and their personalities are distinct. People often ask, where does Six Jun come from? What does Six Jun's six strange names mean?

Six Jun is located in the east and west of the Zhaoling Tomb. It is a rare stone sculpture in the Middle Ages. According to legend, ten years after the reign of Zhenuan (636), in order to commemorate their beloved six horses, Emperor Taizong ordered the great painter to draw a picture of the horse and let the famous craftsmen separately carve the six war horses that accompanied their battlefields and repeatedly built battles. About six meters high and about three meters wide, the stone screen is overlaid with praise and written by Ouyang Xun. The six horses are all three horses. There are three trimmed flowers on the neck of the horse's neck, and the tails are tied. The horse's skull, saddle, foot, mud, tassels, and hanging rings are all available. This is the Tang Dynasty. The typical dress up horse. [[are Turkish traditions- SB]]

Li Yuan, Li Shimin and his father and son calm down the world, and the war horse is their important helper. As early as in Taiyuan, he had made every effort to collect good horses to equip the army. At that time, he had taken over Turkic confession and obtained more than a thousand horses from the Turks. Later in a series of campaigns to conquer the North, Tang Jun relied on horse-horse warfare operations to unify the country and consolidate the emerging Tang Dynasty. In the early years of the Tang dynasty, the methods used to obtain war horses were mainly foreigners, captured horses, and used horses to buy horses from each other. They are often associated with Turkic and some countries in the Western Regions.

For example, during the years between Wude and Zhenuan, the East Turkistan began to give or contribute several hundred horses to Turkic, Karim Khan, and Western Turk Yeh Khan. The western countries also sacrificed horses in the Western Regions. The Tang Dynasty paid particular attention to the acquisition of horses in the mutual market with Turkic and Western Regions. Judging from various signs, the six junts of the Zhaoling Mausoleum of the Taizong Emperor of the Tang Dynasty came from the countries of the Western Regions under the control of the Turkic and Turkic Khanates.

The name of Liu Jun was strange. At first glance, it was known that it was not Zhongyuan's phrasing. Its meaning was related to foreign languages. Ge Chengyu explored this mystery. He said: Fist is the horse that was given to Li Shimin by Xu Luoren, the provincial governor of the Tang Dynasty. The sound of "Fist of Mao" originates from the Turkic language. The standard translation name should be derived from "the power of Yu". This is a small country controlled by the Western Turks and is located in present-day Xinjiang. To the west of Tashkurgan to the northernmost part of Pakistan, so this horse is very likely to be a good horse with the right to breed in the country. The mischief was translated as "set up" or "lost". It was the high official number of the military commander of Turkic. The officer was located under the Khan and the leaves, and the number of soldiers and horses was about 20,000.

Therefore, the horse was A rider named after the Turkic official number. The white hoof was not a “four black hoofed pure black horse” interpreted by the Chinese in the millennia. The “white hoof” was originally intended to originate from the Turkic “bota” meaning young or young camel, and was “less sweaty”. This means that this dark horse is a horse that bears the honorary title of “sweat-sweat”, with the title of praise and the symbolism of the noble official number. This is consistent with the traditional practice of the Tang people praising the name of the king. Teluk is a Chinese translation of the Turkic “tegin” and is one of the top official names of the Turkic Khanate. It is mostly served by Turkic royal children. Han Chinese who surrender to the Turkies are also available.

Tang Taizong named his own with the Turkic official name. Mounts are a custom to praise Turkic horses. In Lulu's "Lulu" is the "Sayaka" and "Sibolu" in the Turkic language, meaning "the brave and healthy", and often used by Turkic people as the honorary title of the leader. The true meaning is "Brilliant Horse". The "Qing" of the Qinglan has nothing to do with the ancient Chinese. It was derived from the Turkic cin or sin and was the transcription of the "Qin". At that time, the Chinese claimed that the West of the West of Central Asia was the Great Qin State, and the "Qing" and "Qin" were homonyms. , refers to the horse from the Western Qin Dynasty.




***

There are many nomadic peoples on the land of the Eurasian continent in the north, the Huns in the west and the East Lake in the east. Different tribes and ethnic groups merged in history. The Xiongnu, Xianbei, Rouran and other ethnic groups appeared one after another. In the Mongolian region, the Shuangwen Stone Monument was discovered in the Tang Dynasty. It positively praised the great Tang Dynasty and negatively accused the blood and tears.

During the Sui and Tang dynasties, the Turks initiated the establishment of a huge empire. In the early years of the Tang Dynasty, the south was invaded several times. Li Shimin took the coalition policy in his early years. During the three years (629) autumn of Zhenguan, Tang Taizong ordered Li Jing to lead Li Shiji, Chai Shao, and Xue Wanqie to unite 100,000 soldiers to break through suddenly. Li Jing unexpectedly won the match and defeated him. He fled by force. Li Bai was intercepted on the White Island and reduced the deployment of more than 50,000 people.

The influence of the Turks on China was mainly during the Sui and Tang dynasties, and there were not many historical records.







Fresco from Turkish Khaganate (Göktürk) kurgan

Excavated by archaeologist Cantekin Karcaubay (son of) Professor Kharcaubay Sartkojauli. Prof. Sartkojauli is the head of the project Kazakhstan and Mongolia which began in 2011.  Turkish Kurgan is in Mongolia, called as "Mayhan Uul Kurganı" (or Bayhan Uul), located 210 kilometers west of Bator of Ulan Bator, on the edge of Mayhan Uul Mountain (Çadır Mountain). There are 12 other kurgans dating from the 7th century AD to the 10th century AD. It is surrounded by trenches, all of which are known as traditions unique to Göktürks. According to the Byzantine coin, found in the kurgan, they estimated to the 7th c AD. It is the first kurgan found until today, which belong to Göktürks. 


A Turk with a Red Horse (War Horse)
Turkish tribes are also named with their colored horses



"The Chinese ambassador, Wang Yente, who went to the Uighur capital in the years of AD 983-985, states that the property in Uighur Turks is regulated according to horse colors. Likewise among the Pecheneg Turks, the longitudes are emphasized by the colors of the horses. The eight names of the Pecheneg are as follows:

1) Yavdı Erdim: Bright. Have bright horses, Erdem tribe.
2) Kürekçi Çor: The Sky (Blue) Çor. Have (blue) horses.
3) Kabukşın Yula: Have horses in the color of a tree shell.
4) Suru Kül-Bey: Have soil color horses.
5) Kara Bay: Have black horses.
6) Boru Tolmaç: Have dark horses.
7) Yazı Kaban: (not clear).
8) Bula Çoban: Have variegated color horses.

The terms of Pecheneg tribes, Çor, Yula, Bay, Dilmaç, Çoban (Çaban) mentioned above, are not persons name but titles. For example, Çoban (shepherd) does not meant shepherd." by İbrahim Sarı (translated by SB)