21 Nisan 2015 Salı

Turkish peoples and American indians

google tr.from Rus-to Eng.!
 Scientists have discovered a community of Kazakhstan in the work of the Turkic peoples and American Indians

Orientalists Kazakhstan, A comparative study of culture of Turkic peoples and American Indians discovered a surprising commonality in their work. This writes the chief researcher at the Institute of Oriental Studies. R.B.Suleymenova MES RK, Doctor of Historical Sciences in Shaizada Tohtabaeva "Kazakhstan truth" in his article "From the Kazakh Tukum to papaya seed Navajo."

For domestic experts conducted the work is of great interest, primarily because there was a close correlation in the national crafts Kazakhs and American Indians. This relationship seems intriguing and mysterious as two people share a huge space in the form of the ocean, which for ancient man, at first sight, seems insurmountable.

So still originates from (if any) is unity in the work of the Kazakh and Indian peoples? After all, plenty of parallels found, for example, in the woven art Kazakhs and Navajo. Similarity in color, ornamental motifs and compositional decisions knots woven fabrics of the two peoples is truly amazing and impressive. Parallels can be traced to simple and complex elements and motifs patterns, characterized by a certain form and semantic unity. Many parallels in the patterns formed from homogeneous motives and combined logical emphasis in the ornament, and finally in the whole composition of the ornament, including color features.

Genesis of American Indians has long been a matter of interest to the scientific world. According to the research of American scientists from the University of Michigan, the area was settled by American Asian tribes - hunters from southern Siberia in several stages. The migration, on the assumption of historians, takes 70 thousand. BC to 12 thousand. Ancient people, getting to Chukotka, crossed the narrow strait separating Asia from North America, now known as the Bering Strait. This is supported by the outcomes of genetic studies of American Indians and people of South Siberia. This hypothesis considered in the works of Western and Russian scientists, is the increasing development in Kazakhstan researchers who have greatly expanded the question. And, in turn, have put forward a range of justifications affinity American Indians not only with Asia but also Turkic tribes.

During the Soviet years, the famous orientalist Abrar Karimullin wrote that since the seventeenth century until the twentieth century, many scholars have drawn attention to an amazing anthropological, linguistic (language phonetics, speech intonation) similarity Indian tribes Maya, Quechua, with the Sioux and other Turkic ethnic groups. For example, the Swedish orientalist Stig Wikander, stating in 1970 the results of the comparative analysis of the Mayan languages and Turkic peoples, came to the conclusion that they are genetically related. Famous Russian scientist Yuri Knorozov regardless of S. Wikander also established linguistic similarity of the most important, essential concepts of bearing 300 words of Turkic ethnic groups and Mayan Indian.

Striking parallels are observed in the material culture of the American Indians and the Kazakhs. Arts and Crafts of the two nations differ profound originality and expressiveness. Thus the main artistic means life is filled with magical objects traditional folk life, was ornament - a kind of "language" is performed in the past, cognitive, communicative, artistic, aesthetic, magical-religious and other functions. Here is some of the elements of comparative ornament. For example, a triangular motif, correlating with the number three (Ush - Kazakhs; OSH - Maya), represented by three vertical levels: the top - heavenly, middle - and lower earthly - underground. However, in Turkish, and Indian culture triangle was used as a talisman.

If we turn to the ancient cult of the stars, from the space objects in the traditional culture of the Turkic peoples and Native American motifs popular sun, moon, stars, and the Milky Way, Venus, the North Star, the Big Dipper, the Pleiades. Comparative sun signs in the arts and crafts of Turkic peoples and Indians reveals similarities not only fine (in the form of a vortex outlet circle with radiating rays, with the point of the cross in the middle), but also in the name - kun kun and Kazakhs in the Mayan language. I should add that the Kazakhs, and American Indians in the past correlated souls with stars.

In comparing the two peoples traditions prevalent images of leaves, shamrock, flowers, vegetable seeds, which symbolized fertility, eternal renewal and rebirth of life. Seeds in the representation of the Kazakhs and the American Indians, for example, the Navajo were associated with a healthy offspring and fertility. These floral motifs, namely Tukum (in Kazakh - seeds) appear in many jewelry Kazakhs. Curiously, the Navajo in this respect it is preferred melon seeds.

Much in common in the traditional culture of the two nations due to the different animals that are totems of certain tribes and clans that were sealed in folklore and tamgas. In the Kazakh applied arts, in particular, felt and embroidery are often present stylized antlers. In the Indian tradition is also popular image of a deer - a totem of some genera. Deer personified the idea of love, tenderness and kindness, and elk - strength, endurance and freedom. If the applied arts of the Turkic peoples images of wildlife played more often in stylized form, the Indian art (monumental sculpture, rock art) occupies a significant percentage of plays realistic manner.

The most popular application in the works compared peoples have bird images are almost all nations associated with the sky, the sun, the upper world. In the language of the Kazakhs bird called құs and Maya - kosh. In the Indian tradition eagle personified divine power. It is interesting that the principle of the image "mottled" motif, that is, the beak, claws and eyes instead of the whole animal can be traced both in the arts and crafts of the Kazakhs and the Indians.

Designated in the works compared the two nations held a frog, symbolizing fertility. It is interesting that the Kazakhs, and Indians (particularly Maya) frog is called by the same word - baқa.

Among the domestic domain-art motifs, magic values which are clearly manifested in the traditions of the Kazakhs and the Indians, of particular interest are the image of onions, arrows and rush. Their images in ornament products presented as a protection against negative forces. In addition, people in ancient times believed that the bows, arrows and peaks, arranged in a pattern, can contribute to a large, healthy offspring, which, in my opinion, reflects the symbolic layering of these motifs.

Still would like to acknowledge the community in the geometrization of ornamental motifs. Similar, for example, are simple and complex elements in the form of a cross, square, diamond bands, triangles, zigzags, parallelogram. Of Indian art motifs correlate with Kazakh and multistage gear diamond, diamond cross, multi zigzagovidnaya line, bow and arrow, ram's horns, a spider, a bird, and others. Some woven product, such as Navajo Wool Cape leader and Kazakh Peremetnoe scrip (in Kazakh - korzhyn) comparable centric principle of construction of the decor, the character of the central unit, formed from geometric ornamental motifs. It is important to similarity of the compositional ideas: a variety of rhythm through a combination of static and dynamic multi-cross diamond loop is slightly varying, is repeated in the closing frames. In the compared products also echoes flavor - a combination of yellow, black, red and terracotta colors. And similar symbolic interpretation of ornamental motifs. In particular, both compared samples of the cross symbolizes the four cardinal points and at the same time the sun; diamond means fertility, zigzagovidnaya line - a rainbow.

Thus, the comparative analysis of the Indian and Kazakh products of applied art in weaving, jewelery and other forms of folk art allows to establish similarity, and sometimes identical in technology, category, form, semantic content, including in the ornament, which are mostly symbol of ancient cosmology. However, over time some of the motifs, having lost its original meaning, based on new associations have received a new interpretation, later becoming a tradition. All this may reflect different interpretations of common associative thinking on a human scale, or indicate a genetic relationship.

TUVA NEWS, July 27, 2013
google translate from Russia to English:link

Tuva Türkleri, bugün Rusya Federasyonu içerisinde özerk bir cumhuriyet olarak yaşayan bir topluluktur. Cumhuriyetin sınırlarını, batıda Altay Cumhuriyeti, kuzey-batı ve kuzeyde Krasnoyarsk bölgesi ve Hakasya, kuzey-doğuda İrkuts bölgesi ve Buryatya, güneyde ve doğuda ise Moğolistan oluşturmaktadır. Başkent, Kızıl şehridir ve tam iki büyük nehrin (Kaa-Xem ile Bii-Xem) birleşerek “Yenisey” (Ulug-Xem) olduğu yere kurulmuştur. 

Tuva Turks today is a people living in Tuva Republic which is one of the otonom republik of Russia Federation. Tuva Republic lies to west Altai Republic, to the Krasnoyarsk Kray and Republic of Khakassia, Northwest to the Irkutsk Oblast and Buryat Republic, to the east Mongolia. The capital city of Republic is Kyzyl located in the shore of Ulug-Xem “Yenisey” river which combines in two big rivers Kaa-Xem and Bii-xem. 



Turkish Warrior with knot in his horsa tail - İran

Saka Turks period - Mongolia

Turkish Saka period 
Eshkiolmes - Kapchagay, Almaty/Kazakhstan
Eşkiolmes - Kapçagay, Almatı/Kazakistan

Turkic Evidences of Amerind Languages / PDF
by Prof.Dr.Ekrem Arıkoğlu
Kyrgyzistan-Türkiye Manas Üniversitesi

Amerind word, American and Indian words are abbreviated and used to refer to the natives of the first to set foot in America. According to research from the Old World to New World migrations have been three different times. Amerind those who moved to America about 12-15 thousand years ago, those who moved from 5-7 thousand years ago, those who moved from the Na-Dene and Eskimo-Aleut about 1-2 thousand years ago is called. Na-Dene speakers of Sino-Caucasian languages research in the way of their relatives are opinions. Eskimo-Aleutlar both the America and in Asia live in the present. 

Amerind is considered to be of Asian origin, but which does not have precise information on Asian nations were connected. In our country, some of the studies carried out so far may be the American way of links between the American Indians and the Turks are thoughts. According to J. H. Greenberg, developed the theory of Amerind and his followers Ruhlen deeper with each other most of the relatives of American Indians. This view is correct, the Turks are not so many locals are just some of the Native American group of American bonds should be. In this paper, written by Greenberg and Ruhlen "An Amerind Etymological Dictionary" from Turkish words similar to the ones investigated in the work of the words. Matches the sound balance and ask the synonym of words will be doing this. 

Dictionary, Amerind language speakers are also deemed to be 910 words. Some of the small differences in the sound of these words, used by all the Amerind. Ismail Dogan before, "prepared by the Mayans and Turkishness" in the words from the list in the work of 106 words will not be included in this study. The paper will focus on the origins of 28 words we think might  be the same. The first word shape Amerind languages. In parentheses, is the same as we think of Amerind language of Turkish origin provided for. 

Mesoamerican statue and Eastern Anatolian Yürük rug, Turkey, 19th century.
(The term Yörük /Yürük (Youruk) is derived from the Turkish verb "to walk, to march" "yori" (today yürü- walk). And Yörük (+ler) (Youruk+s) are not a different ethnic. 
They are Turkish people.)