Eskipara (Askipara) Monastery
Old Albanian - Polovetsian Abbey- V-VIII centuries
In the village Ashagi Askipara - Qazakh - Azerbaijan Republic.
Armenian falsehood from Akdamar as far as Sari Gelin
By Hikmet Babaoğlu
"Lies have short legs or a lie has a short life"
Some words about three articles
Academic Ramiz Mehdiyev's article of "Gorus -2010: the season of absurd theatre" which could rouse great interest in the society, has been discussing broadly in Azerbaijan scientificsocial sphere. Those articles and discussions enriched much our notions about the metaphysics of the Armenian aggression directed our history for years. The talented scientist- publicist Hikmat Babaoghlu's published articles of "Armenian falsehood from Akdamar as far as "Sari gelin" ("Yellowish bride"), "Following the sign of the song or a Polovtsian girl Sari gelin" and "The realities about the Armenian history" have been written with methodological affection of the famous article of the Academic. The edition of those articles privately as a book (in Azerbaijani, Russian, English and Turkish languages) under the name of "Armenian falsehood from Akdamar as far as "Sari gelin" of course, is very important.
The Armenians, who were always distinguished by their cruel aggression against the Azerbaijan people, altogether, against the Turks became more unbridled for not being met with resistance. They not also believed their disagreeable lies told by themselves, but also, it is pity, they could be able to make the others to believe their lies. The most sorrowful point is that the Armenian lies could influence on the Azerbaijan history studying, and turned to the fact of our national historical thinking.
Hikmat Babaoghlu's article of "From Akdamar as far as "Sari gelin", or in other word, his continuous articles unmasking Armenian falsification that was branched out from the material culture up the spiritual culture, in fact, is a wholly work, to tell the truth, are the sketches, fragments of a whole work. The author is right while saying that the Armenians infringed much upon those periods or those stages of our history, as a result, our genetic memory about the periods and stages till Islam after adopting the religion of Islam, lost its sharpness. The rich culture created by the Tanrichi -Christian faith Polovtsian Turks who were the oldest inhabitants of the Caucasus (and surrounding regions) were mastered by the Armenians (by the Hays).
During the period (VII -XI centuries) of the coming of Moslem Turks of Oghuz to the Caucasus (surrounding regions) and their settlement there (and the formation of the Azerbaijan people of Turkish origin) the cultural monuments that the Islam outlook refused , turned to the "history of culture" of uncultured ethnos.
As the poet-historian Nariman Hasanzadeh wrote:
The history was ours,
But others wrote our history.
Our historian courage,
Our historian sorrow
Didn't remain in the history.
Alongside with the publicistic emotion, passion in the articles of Hikmat Babaoghlu, the science, logic, the method of investigating - interpretation, the arguments -proof are clear and convincing. In order to prove that the Akdamar temple is a Polovtsian -Turkish temple, the author compares it with the architecture of the monuments which are without doubt belong to the Armenians (the Hays). The pictures, writings on the temple-monuments that were spread in the broad geography where the Polovtsian - Turks settled, or their common structure once more show insisting that there can't be any word about the Armenian ( the Hays) authority, or the creative activity of them.
But except one point…
The Armenians are the authors of to make that all belong to the Armenians of the Polovtsian-Turkish monuments that they invaded or “tried to “master", and after many years Alongside with our material cultural monuments, Hikmat Babaoghlu investigates also the important factor of the aggressive attitude to our spiritual monuments. The author proves by the undeniable facts that the song of Sari gelin" has nothing to do with the Armenians' creative activity. In this song which has been popular in different versions among the Turks of Polovtsian there is spoken about the love of a Moslem Turk (a boy) to the other Christian Turk (a girl) and the idea-content of the work of “Sheikh Senan" of the great Huseyn Javid is just the above mentioned theme.
The article of “Armenian falsehood from Akdamar as far as Sari gelin" arouses interest by its successful etymological explanation. Especially, because the author didn't satisfy by giving simple formal investigation, tries to explain the historicalethnographic theme of some etnonyms, toponyms.
Among the numbered of daring considerations of Hikmat Babaoghlu, as we think, the most daring point is the thesis about the existence about being of the elements of TurkishPolovtsian in the ethnic structure of the today's Armenians. The author proves with the arguments that some parts of the old Armenians- Polovtsian Turks Christianized since the Middle Ages and mixed with the Hays who came to the Caucasus. Though the above mentioned arguments are not powerful but to prove the contrary version of it is difficult. And in fact, during the Soviet period, in the books of "Azerbaijan history" it existed too.
As a conclusion I can tell that the work of "Armenian falsehood from Akdamar as far as Sari gelin" by Hikmat Babaoghlu, in other word, his three articles which are the continuation of each other, is important response to the Armenian falsification. While the ideology of Azerbaijan studying that was risen to the higher level by the all nations' leader Haydar Aliyev, the Armenian falsifiers will get more such kind of responses. Till the time when they will learn to confess the reality.
The director of the Center of Ataturk,member of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences,doctor of philological sciences, depute
"All people exist as much as their national-cultural memories"
Following academic Ramiz Mehdiyev’s article named as “Gorus-2010: the season of absurd theatre”
The history of all people are as much as their national-cultural memories. In this meaning, the Azerbaijan people aren't exception. It is also reality that for centuries our people's history underwent distortions in different levels, on different purposes. And all these happened at times with the hands of others, at times with the help of ours. The purpose was to disjoin the real past of our people, so, to create base for the invading of our lands. We must confess that the imperialist forces were able to achieve their purposes.
All the three church-abbeys belong to the Albanian culture,
that is why their parameters are the same. Compare yourselves
One of the most important periods of our history is the primary Middle Ages period. This period is the period which left deep signs in the belief system and in the socio-political, ideological and cultural structure of the ancestors of Azerbaijan people, and underwent much distortion and misrepresentation. In the attitude to that period, our historians in most cases either kept silence or mechanically satisfied by following the thoughts of those who distorted the history. But recently the chief of the President Administration of the Azerbaijan Republic, Academic Ramiz Mehdiyev's article of “Gorus -2010: the season of absurd theatre", which alongside by coordinating the actual problems of that period with the present period, firstly, reflects in itself the objective and daring approaching to the history of the primary and Middle Ages of Azerbaijan, defined the new conception for investigating of that periodln. In the article, our history distorted by the Armenians and Armenian liking sides, is investigated on the Academic level, the Armenian liking positions are done away with the scientific evidences. We consider such kind of objective, scientific and daring approaching will define special directions for to investigate our history on the new motives.
"The argument base of the Armenian side has always been weak in both cases and it is still weak, because from a historical standpoint this argument is based on the fictions, the distortions and unscientific reasons, from the juridical standpoint it is based on willfully interpretation of the international law propositions."
Academic Ramiz Mehdiyev"
All people reached to the modern stage after living different historical stages, developing, and also by creating material and spiritual system, by protecting and causing them to develop. Beyond doubt, as science, memory or human is heir or heritage, culture is also a heritage. That is to say, our present culture is based on the former culture which in itself is based on the culture that we created before it. Altogether, culture is the collection of national and spiritual values that the people created during their history. If how much it is necessary to create and form the culture, it is also necessary to protect the created culture. At the same time it is necessary for all people to own material and cultural examples created by themselves. The Azerbaijan people lived in the Southern Caucasus for centuries, and as much as the history remembers lived in this geographical area, Azerbaijan people also enlarged their living areas in different stages of the history, and at times because of different reasons were satisfied with those geographical areas, and finally, at present, in XXI century it resulted with such kind of events. But it doesn't mean that the material and spiritual values created by the Azerbaijan people, simply are inside of the official-political- administrative borders of the present Azerbaijan Republic. Our cultural geography, our language geography, our history geography are much larger than our present administrative geography.
"Till the middle of XV century the Armenians (Hays) didn't live in the Southern Caucasus. In 1441, Jahan shah - the ruler of Qaraqoyunlu Turkish - Azerbaijan state, moved the centre of Armenian Catholicism from the city of Sis of Kilikiya to the abbey of Uchkilse (Uch Muedzin) situated near Irevan, the people of which were Turks and
in old times was the Albanian abbey."
Academic Ramiz Mehdiyev
In this meaning, we consider that the most interesting period of the Azerbaijan Turks, that is to say, the period of primary Middle Ages is one of the themes waiting for its thoroughly investigating. Because that period left important signs in the belief and ideological system of Azerbaijan. That period, is also the period which Azerbaijan history, the material and spiritual values created by our people presented by distorting, which is mastered by others and try to consider theirs. It is known that the old Huns, Polovtsians, Suvars, Saks, Kimers, Iskets, Oghuzes and other Turkish stocks living in Azerbaijan, from time to time used to overflow from the geography they lived and conquered countries, or withdrew. During such kind of overflowing and withdrawing periods, of course, Azerbaijan both developed, but at the same time and underwent to some foreign influences. All this showed itself in the belief system of our people, in Azerbaijan folk-lore , in folk literature, in eposes all the events were reflected in the samples.
Still if we look through the epos of "Alp-Er-Tunqa" we shall see that in VIII-VII centuries BC. Suvar Oghuz, Hun and other Turkish stocks lived together under the Saks' sway. According to the historical information, between those parts of Turks there was social-political, ideological and faith unity. The Turkish people who were our ancestors never were idol worships, never idolized idols. The Turks always had the faith of Gok Tanri , the faith of God. Even Herodot wrote in his work of "History" that like Ellins the Turks didn't have any Gods. Simply, they had two Tanri.
On the left side : A Polovtsian fighter forged on the church of Akdamar.
On the right side: the Scythian fighter on the shore of the Black Sea
Both of the examples belong to the Turks. If Akdamar church is an Armenian church but why on it here is forged
Turkish fighter's picture?
[ The Scythian or Amazon is from an Etruscan vase, there are more examples of these "Parthian Shot" in Turkish Art. Scythians are Turkish speaking, ancestors of today Turkish tribes. Of course some, who stayed in Ukraine, Europe or
in Russia are assimilated with time. - SB]
We may consider that Herodot's confession is a bit inaccurate.
That is to say, not two Tanri, but the Turks always had one Tanri (God). It appears that the second "authority" that Heredot presented as the second Tanri (God) was the monarch of the old Turks. Because starting from the old times up to present the Turks thought the necessity that as the Tanri (God) was only in the sky, the ruler was also one on the earth, and with this wish they joined to the competition of to be conqueror. One of the last examples of it we can see in the dialogue between Emir Teymur and Ildirim Beyazid. Emir Teymur said the followings addressing to the great Conqueror: "As the God is only in the sky, on the earth there must be one ruler. This world isn't so wide for there be need to two rulers". It appears that what Herodot watched in the old Turks (the Seythian) and considered as the two Tanri, was one Gok Tanri, the other was, that is to say the "Tanri's (God's) shadow on the earth" was monarch. When the monotheistic religions that "explained" the Tanri, that is to say, God more thoroughly, the Turks displayed interest in this, they mastered and adopted the values existing in the belief of monotheistic.
So, let's give attention to the problems connected with the investigating of the spreading of Christianity in Azerbaijan in the primary Middle Ages, the mastering of this ideology among the local Turks, and the material- cultural monuments created by our ancestors in the Caucasian Albania arousing from this belief. As it is known, still in I (first) centuries there was built the oldest Christian temple in Azerbaijan. Moisey Kalankatuklu wrote that one of hevaries of Prophet Isa - Fadey came to Azerbaijan. While spreading the religious faith he moved towards the north-east, while passing that period's provinces of Artaz and Artar (it embraces the province of Maku of the present Southern Azerbaijan) and forwarding towards the east he was killed by Sanaturk- the head of the Armenis which were the local stocks.
The Hays present the history of Hays not their own history but the history of the geography where they lived. The old people of this geography were Christian Armen Turks. I want to direct the attention of the readers especially to these names. Firstly, it is necessary to be noted that the Armens, Armeniyye and other names related with Armens shown in all the historical sources, have no belonging to modern Hays, modern Armenia. Those Armens were Turks. Just here let's give attention shortly to the process of word creating in the lexicon of the old Turks.
While Alexander of Macedon passed through the fields of Seythian, the local people introduced themselves to him as "Turk-Men". Since those times that part of Seythians are called Turkmen. At that time "Turk-Men" meant "I am a Turkman". At present time the Uzbeks protected and kept that lexic structure in their language. Instead of saying "I am Uzbek" they say "Men Uzbek Men". Er-Men is also such kind of word which was created in this way. That is to say, "I am a man" or "I am a fighter". As it becomes known from the name, Artaz or Artaq, mean "Ertaq-Artugh". If to speak about the words of Ertaq and Ertugh, let me note that one of the rulers of the dynasty of Chobaniler was Artuq. Ertugh means "the fighter who carries tugh". The head of those people whom the Turks called as Armanis was Sanaturk.
When Fadey was killed there, another missionary named as Yelisey came to the city of Shaki of Azerbaijan and built a church on the hearth of fire-worship where the local people prayed . Again Moisey Kalakatuklu wrote that while Yelisey passed through the valley of Zargun, and went to spread the religion among the local people, he was killed on the road.
It is necessary to remember that the valley of Zargun is called valley of Samur and it is supposed this name is connected with the names of Huns and Khazars (Khazarhun, Zarhun). Arqun is the same with the name of Arhun which is used by modern Turks as a human name, and the archaic meaning of the name is as "a private fighter, or a soldier of Hun" . In the old Turks and at present in the army of Turks Er means a private soldier. Today we know that there is a city of Arqun in the North Caucasus. As it seems in all the sources both the toponims, ethnonims and hidlonims and etc. are in the Turkish language.
But of course, after that effort, the spreading of religion of Christian in the Caucasus Albany delayed for some time. In 313- by the Albanian tsar Urnayir the religion of Christian was adopted as the official religion.
But according to the traditions of that period the religion adopted by the ruler had to be adopted by the people too, and it demanded some time, and in some cases it met across with persistence. That was why after the severe measures taken by the Albanian ruler, devout Vachaqan, the religion of Christian was adopted wholly. So, the old Polovtsians, Huns and other Turkish stocks who lived in Albany, including other stocks adopted Christianity.
Just here, while speaking about Caucasian Albany it is necessary to deal with the etymology of this name. Because up present time the name of Albany remained unexplained from the etymological view point. Firstly, Albany was not the motherland of the Turks, it was the motherland of more than 26 ethnic groups and stocks lived in that geography. The name of Alban was the common name of all the peoples lived there. The Turks (alp-an-lar) simply, were super etnos among those etnoses and they were dominating over others.
It is necessary to be noted that today that ethnic and cultural structure remains as before. Simply, the name of Alban was replaced with the name of Azerbaijan. As in old times, while saying Alban it was meant all the ethnic groups and stocks, at present while saying Azerbaijani the same thing is meant. That is to say, the name of Azerbaijani is the common name of all the Turks living in Azerbaijan- Talishes, Lesghis, Avars, Tats, Saxurs, Udins and others. It appears that for thousands of centuries we-Azerbaijanis (Turks, Talishes, Lesghis, Avars, Tats and etc.) live brotherly in the same place and by creating the culture and tradition of together living we kept it up today. As the ideology of Azerbaijanism created by our great leader is based on such kind of severe historical bases and national -ethnic traditions, at the end of XX century it could be able to turn into the ideological formula saving our people from dividing and ensured our unity and equality.
Now about the explanation of the word of Alban.
According to me here the letters or sounds of "b" and "p" underwent phonetic changing. I think that the word is as "Alp (b) +an. Here the word of Alp means in archaic Turkish language" the high, courageous". An is the affix of plural. This word has been protecting its original form at present too.
For example, in the town of Quba there is a village named Alpan. That is to say, it is clear the word of Alpan is a Turkish word. The affix of "ya or ye" is a case affix. For example, Turkiye (Turkey), Suriya (Suria), Almaniya (Germany), Avstraliya (Austria) and etc. As it is seen ya-ye turn to the special name by being added to the words of showing place. So, Alp (aniya) means the country of tall ones, the country of tall height or the country of high mountains. It rouses no doubt that Albans were tall people. In the pictures of Strabon, including in the investigated grave yards the found out bones prove it. For example, the height of the 18 years old girl buried in the temple in the village of Kish of the town of Shaki is 203 centimeter. The skeleton bones of the older people prove that their heights were 230 centimeter. Just here it is necessary to cite from M.Kalankatuklu. The ruler of Sasani, II Shapur (The Albanian tsar Urnayir who adopted Christianity, married to II Shapur's niece) organized face to face fight with the warlord of Huns' country, with Hunoqur, who invaded the Iranian kingdom. M.Kalankatuklu describes that warlord as a broad-shouldered, tall, and giant man.
"He had forehead in the width of three inches, the helve of his giant spear was made of high wood." It appears that the physical - biological structure is conformed and proves each other.
By presenting some examples of the variant of Alp of the word of Alb that lives up today, I am going to sum up our explanations.
At present, there are villages named Alpoud in the towns Goychay and Qazakh. At the same time in some regions (Shirvan and west regions) there is a special kind of bread called as "alpoud". I think this kind of bread is the kitchen example of Alps reached up today.
Now let's return to our topic. After adopting Christianity they began to build temples for to pray there and in those temples the Turkish architecture style was reflected. That is to say, if we pay attention to the buildings of all those temples we can see that they are architecture samples having domes like tents (the domes that we mentioned as covering as tents belong to the Turkish architecture and it is the tradition coming from the tent culture. H.B) are the architecture monuments built with four cornered swelling ups. Such kind of architectural monuments are called monuments which are built with the style of clover liking. (the building of the temples in this way isn't accidental. This form is connected with four elements coming from the old Turkish architecture: fire, water, weather and soil. One of the elements consisting the faith system of God were just those elements).
If we watch attentively we may see that all the churches existing in the Caucasus Albany are the monuments just that clover liking or the method of tent.
By the way, I can present a sample. For example, in the territory of Kalbajar the church of Xudaveng and the church of Akdamar are as if twin architecture samples. On the tent, without doubt, a tower resembling the pointed cap of Polovtsian is erected. It means that though they adopted Christianity they reflect the cultural samples coming from Goddism, and reflected the architecture style coming from Goddism in their belief hearths.
So, all the abbeys and temples exiting in Caucasus Albany, both the churches called as Xudaveng and Xoteng in the town of Kalbajar, and the church in the village of Julud of the town of Oghuz, or the abbey of Askipara in the town of Qazakh, and the abbey of Bayan were built in the same style, as if their architect was the same person. By numerating the names of those churches my purpose is to draw the attention of the readers to the point that all of them are the material heritage of the same culture, and are based on the same architectural style. Just starting from IV century, that is to say in the period after Urnayir and Vachaqan, the numbers of such kind of praying -houses increased in Azerbaijan. I consider that the areas in which the Christian churches existing in the Caucasus Albany define also the borders of Albany. One end of those borders go up to Iran, the other end goes up to Eastern Anadolu. Of course, the spreading of Christianity was a great event. But at the same time other Turks didn't adopt Christianity. Most of them still remained being as Tanrichi. And at that period among the Tanrichi Turks and Christian Turks there were from time to time conflicts. It is natural, the events happening in our history were reflected in our daily life. At the same time, in folk, in the art of Ozan, and in our eposes that event found its reflection. There is a topic in the epos of "Kitabi-Dada -Qorqud" connecting with the Polovtsians adopted Christianity. And in that epos in the part of invading of Qazan khan's home we can see the Plovitsian (Christian) Melik is the enemy of Oghuses.
During the next periods in the territory of Azerbaijan and wholly among all the parts of Turks, Islam began to be spread. Appearing of Islam in VII century as monotheistic religion, again attracted attention of Tantichi Turks. Firstly, the Bulgarians of Itil (Volqa), that is to say, the ancestors of present Tatars (Oghuzes) adopted Islam. In the 115 kilometer south of the present Kazan, there was the city of Bulgar, capital of Bulgarians. In 921 Bulgarian khan, Almish sent the messenger named Bashto who was from Turks of Khazar, to Al Muktadir, the caliph of Abbasi, to say him that he wanted to study Islam. The caliph sent Bulgarians both ministers of religion in order to teach them Islam and also sent group of architects for to build mosques. The person who was included into that delegation staff, Ibni Fadlan, afterwards wrote interesting information about Bulgarian Turks. Almish khan, who adopted Moslem changed his name into Jafar. Approximately, at the same time the ruler of Karakhani, Satuk Bughra also adopted Islam and changed his name into Abdulkarim. So, in this way Islam began to be spread among the Turks.
But there is one point that doesn't attract attention. Of course, though it is shown that the Bulgarians of Itil and Qarakhaniler were the first ones who adopted Islam, it is fact that before them Islam was spread among the Turks in Albany, around the lake Urmiya, and around Caspian.
In this way, the Turks adopted Islam willingly. Just in the eposes of Azerbaijan that period was reflected.
The Turks who adopted Islam called the Turks who had adopted Christianity, firstly as Qara imanlilar (Black faith). The name of Qaramanlilar comes from here. That is to say, they were rivals to Turks of Oguz from time to time and some parts of Qaramanlilar who had adopted Christianity, were exiled to different parts of Azerbaijan when the state of Ottomans gained strength, that is to say, to the territory of Qarabagh, especially to the region of Jabrail, some parts of them were exiled to Bizans. In that period among the exiled ones there were Christian Turks of Ermen. Having relations with their names in the south-east of the city of Konya there is a town of KaramanErmenek. At present the Turks living in the east Bizans, in Greek, remember that they were Turks once. But at the same time they have already turned to one part of the Greek people. The chief minister of Greek, Karamanis is a Turk from the generation of those Qaramaniler. He is a Christian Polovtsian Turk.
So, during the period that we deal with, in the Caucasus Albany, that is to say, in Azerbaijan, while Islam spread widely, while the influence of Oghuzes increased, there happened the process of removing of Turks of Christian to the outlying parts of Azerbaijan. In IX century the parts of Saljuq spread from Middle Asia to the Southern Caucasus and Anadolu, to the north of Iraq, increased both the number, authority, governing of Oghuzes in Azerbaijan. In 837, after the defeat of Babek, the head of the movement of Khurramiler the religion of Islam became the leading religion having no rival. So, it was put an end to the persistence of Turks of Khazar and local Turks of Khristian who had adopted Christianity. Khazars moved to Europe, there they forgot ethnic identities and began to live as the Jews, at present ninety percent of hundred of the European Jews are masnavi Khazar Turks who forgot their ethnic identities and are known by their religious identity. Simply, they forgot their own languages and mastered the Jewish language which is the intercourse means of their religion.
Starting from that period most parts of Turks of Christian began to be pressed to the outlying parts of Azerbaijan. One part of them began to be spread in Qarabagh, one part to the mountains of Zangazur, one part to the East Anadolu, some part to the north- east shores of Black Sea- up to Trabzon. By the way, it was shown in some sources that the stocks of janit or janikler whose origins go to III-IV century AD. were the Turks came from Caucasus, and they had a state around of Trabzon. Then we shall speak about it.
As above noted, the Christian Polovtsians began to be pressed and at that time an interesting process happened. The Christian Turks who were pressed from Azerbaijan settled in the outlying parts of Azerbaijan, and began to build new cultural monuments for themselves. One of the samples of those monuments was Akdamar church. Akdamar church is the cultural sample of Polovtisians who went from here, that they built in East Anadolu. Akdamar is the temple of Christian Polovtsians (Turks) which was built in the island of Akdamar during 915-921. The sources note that Akdamar church was built by the order of king Gaqik who belonged to the khanate of Vachpurakan or Vaspurhakan.
Again I want to draw your attention to the khanate of Vachurhakan and want to explain what it means. There is a word of " hakan" at the end of the word of Vashpurhakan. "Hakan" is in Turkish language. Vaspur means "strike". In the old Turks they called the emperor as "snatching" that is to say the man who gets something by snatching. The words were created in this way, and at that period the daily used words were also political terminology. Suppose, the old Turks saw a horse dominating over herd snatching something they called that horse "qapaghan" that is to say "snatching". At the same time if an emperor or a fighter passed the borders of other people and invaded their lands they called this act "qapaghan". For example, the younger brother of Iteris Khaqan, Kapagan Kagan made some stocks obey him, in 716 he defeated bayikullar, and he died in that fight. He gained the title of "Qapaghan" for he defeated the stocks.
but NOT in İndo-European/İranian Art, or Greek/Roman !-SB]
In the archaic Turkish language the synonym of the word of "emperor" was "qapaghan". If to speak about Vaspurhakan, this word was created from the unity of the words of Vas -pur.
This word has the meaning of "invader". That is to say, Vaspurhakan is the owner of the khanate of Polovtisian Turks. Akdamar church was built just by his heir Gaqik or Gakuk. I want also to direct the readers' attention to the meaning of the word of "Gaqik". Gaqik was created from the unity of the words of "gok" and "ok". That is to say, here it is spoken about the Turkish ruler called as Gok-ox. ("ox" means "an arrow"). We know that in the old Turks the words connected with "ox" there were created the words as Uchox. Bozox, Gokox, at times these were the names of stocks, or the address of a part of people. Gaquk means Goyox.
By the way, on the out wall of Akdamar church there is picture of King Gaqik, made by means of swelling of stone. In the picture a squint - eyed, pointed capped Polovitsian Turk sat folding his legs in the uniform of that period. Even the most Armenian liking historian can't insist that man's being an Armenian. That was why the Armenians explain this matter in this way that supposedly Gaqik was obedient of Abbasi caliphs, that was why he dressed in that way. Well, but Abbasi caliphs never dressed as Gaqik's clothing. But whose clothing is Gaqik's clothing? Here again Armenian begin to tell fibs. According to their words all the soldiers were under Abbasi's obedient, Gaqik also dressed like his soldiers. Well, but why Gaqik dressed not as the caliph whose vassal he was, but the soldiers of the caliph? By the way, not all the soldiers of the caliph were Turks. It appears that Gaqik who dressed like the Turks and sat folding his legs was a Turkish man. Starting from Oghus Khaqan who sat on the throne, till that period the Turkish rulers had the tradition to dress like Gaqik and to sit as he sat folding his legs. So, as it is known from all above mentioned names, the building of Akdamar church was charged to the priest Manuel by Gokox.
The church wasn't called Akdamar accidentally. If the Hays (Armenians) built that church they would call it in Armenian language. Because in the Armenian language the word of Akdamar has no meaning. In other languages this word has also no meaning. This is simply is a word combination that can be explained only in Turkish language. Well, if the Armenians built that church why didn't they call it in their language? We know that whatever any people create they give it the name in their own language, all agree that sample was made by those people.
The Turks invented yoghurt and in all the world languages it is called "yogurt" like in Turkish language. The English invented "motor" and in all the world languages it is called as "motor". Akdamar church was built by Turks and called its name in this way. In all the languages this church is pronounced as Akdamar. It is impossible to prove its contrary logic. Let's explain the meaning of Akdamar.
The word of Akdamar is from the words of "white, light". "Damar" (veins) [or "Tamar", etymology is Turkish-SB] is as if a way traveling human body giving life. Akdamar is "the way of light, the way of milk". If we take into consideration that the milk is also white, we understand that the milk way which was known to Turks is related with cosmic space. That is to say, this church is a praying-house which the Turks built in order to have relations with the universe, with cosmic. Akdamar must be explained in this way, and it once more proves that Akdamar belongs to Polovtsians.
But the Armenians explain its meaning by telling fibs. They say that supposedly priest Manuel had a daughter in the name of Tamara and a young boy living near the island loved her. That boy every day came to the island swimming and met with Tamara. One day the priest, the girl's father, felt their meeting. He saw that Tamara lit the lantern and the young boy began to come towards the church swimming. The priest put out the lantern and the boy lost his way, drown in the water. He died crying “Ah, Tamar", "Ah-Tamar". This is a funny explanation having no scientific base. But of course, it harmonizes with Hays' mentality.
There are also other facts which prove that Akdamar church belongs to Polovtsian Turks, that is to say, to Azerbaijanis. These are the pictures engraved on the church by the way of swelling of stones. One of them we mentioned above. There are pictures on the church which show a number of pointed-capped Polovtisians sat folding their legs and praying. As it is known in the old Greek sources another name of Polovtsians is Shishpapaqlar (pointed-capped). At the same time most of the people settled in Mountainous Garabagh were pointed-capped Polovtsians came from Caucasus Albany. For example, there is a village of Shishpapaq in the town of Aghdam. It is also one of the evidences. Except, on Akdamar church there is a picture of a Polovtsian fighter who sat on the horse and turned taking his hand an arrow shooting to the wall of Anadolu. All the historians including Kramer, Bartold, Marr, Shopen, at the same times all the historians of the world, adopt that picture belongs to Turks, Huns. The cap of the warlord which was engraved on the church is a cap made of skin of sable, a cap of Kirghiz or Polovtsian. Here a question arouses. If the Armenians built Akdamar church why did they engrave Polovtsian fighter's picture on it? Of course, there were rubbed some of the pictures and there were added other pictures.
In the town of Kalbajar there is an abbey that we call Xudaveng or Xoteng. If we watch its architectural structure, we can see that they are built in the architectural style as Akdamar was built. This temple was built in V- VII centuries by the Alban knyazes. Even it was rebuilt by the Albanian ruler Hasan Jelal in the next periods. It is said that the wife of Hasan Jelal was buried there too. This church is situated in the village of Baghlipeye near the highway of Aghdare-Kalbajar, that is to say, in the 29-th kilometer of the way going towards Kalbajar from Aghdara. If we give attention we can see that once Mixitar Qosh was there and even he put a sign on the stones. But according to the words of the local people, in the next periods, that is to say, during 1930-1940's, a group of persons came from Armenia and destroyed the engravings on the church, rubbed out the writings. It once more proves that the churches in the territory of Azerbaijan or in the territory of the present Armenia which are considered to be Armenians' churches, don't belong to the Armenians. All of them are the Azerbaijani churches.
If we pay attention to the geography with the spreading of Oghuz Turks we may see that some parts of them go up to the Black Sea. In the Black Sea there were the stocks named as Janik or Janit. The main point is that as it is in our country they also called the rulers of Polovtsians who moved from Caucasus, as Melik. Like in our epos "Kitabi-Dada- Qorqud" there is image of Melik there was Melik Janik. It is interesting that they were also called kafirs (godless ones). After spreading of Islam these names were replaced with the words of gavur. Gavur is the word came from the Arabians, they called the persons who didn't adopt Islam. Here we see the influences of Arabians, so, there are parallels between Polovtsian Melik and Melik Janik. Those Janiks or Janits lived there setting up their state and at the same time they erected Albanian Christian temples around the Black Sea. It is spoken broadly in "The letters of Danishmendi" devoted to the famous Saljuq warlord Danishmendi Qazi, when Danishmendi qazi came to the summer pasture of Aybasti situated between Ordu and Trabzon he went to invade the state of Janik. At that time the head of the Christian Turks was also Tadik who wanted to fight against him. Tadik is an ordinary Turkish name and it is interesting that on the monument of "Orxan-Yenisey" there are the names of some goyturk (Gokturks-SB) warlords as Tadik who fought against the Chinese.
(Aza Tatuk, Gok Amash Tutuk, Bughak Tutuk and etc. By the way the name of Amash at present exists in Azerbaijan as the second name.)
We know that the Goyturks are considered a part of Polovtsians or there is a relationship between them . So, there was intensive fight between Tadik and Danishmendi. When Tadik returned back, to Trabzon we see his name again in the scene of war between the Saljuqs who spread in Anadolu. The Greek pronounce the name of Tadik as Tadis or Tadiodis. It becomes known that Tadik took five thousand of Janik soldiers, that is to say, together with the Christian Polovtsian soldiers he headed the Christian Army of the Rums and around of Amasiya he came face to face with Danishmendi qazi. There Tadik was defeated and he was escaped running from that place. So, all these were because that in VIII-VII centuries BC. maybe before that time in the territory of Anadolu, both in Caucasus and in the north of Caspian sea there lived Turks.
There is information in the epos of "Alp-Er-Tunqa" that under the leadership of Saqs there lived Oghuzes, Polovtsians, and other Turkish people. One of them was pechenikler. If we give attention from where the name of pechenik was created we can see that in the epos of "Alp-Er-Tunqa" the name of famous Turan ruler, Alp-Er-Tunqa's father's name was Beshenik or Bechenik. It shows that the ancestor of pecheniks, or as the Greek called kuma, as the Hungarians called kuns, or as the Russians called Polovtsians were Alp- Er-Tunqa, his father Bechenik. It has old history of Pecheniks living there. So, living of Turks in that geography- in South Caucasus, in East Anadolu and wholly around the lake of Urmiya, and their setting up big states and empires aren't accidental. All these facts once more show that all the churches which the Armenians consider to be theirs and want to master are the material- cultural monuments of Christian Polovtsians. In the church of Uch Muadzin (Echmiedzin) the religious texts in the Polovtsian language in the Armenian alphabet still remain. At the same time we consider that there is also an interesting point.
Today most of the Armenians whose second names are in Turkish are Christian Polovtsians. Nalbadyan, Saribekyan, Ulubabyan, Kocheryan, Zargaryan, Dallakyan and others are the generations of just Christianized Albans, Christianized Polovtsians. They are called Hays. In fact, today there is a struggle between them in Armenia and Armenian Army. That is to say, the struggle between Hays and Christian Polovtsians. They feel that the Hays and Armenians are enemies to one another. We specify this mutual hatred like national hatred. It appears that today in the country which the Armenians call as Hayastan, but which is our Armeniyye, in the country of Christian Polovtsians, there are 30 per cent Hays, who were placed there by the Russians or imperialist forces. So, religious hegemony, religious identity exceeded ethnic identity and as a result there was set up Armenia speaking organization. In fact, this language isn't Armenian language, it is a combination of old pahlavi language and Turkish language. It is pity, our north neighbor gives money to them and makes them to play the role of gendarme in the South Caucasus. But I am sure that today Azerbaijan people will be protected from the Hays' hatred by owning their culture and by making Christian Polovtisians to believe this reality.
The realities about the Armenian history
From the right question to the right answer
* I ( first) question: Where is the real ethnography of Armenians?
In the last article, the end of my investigation resulted with it. As the history of their people, the Hays present the history of the geography where they live now. The history, the culture, the monuments, the different examples found during archeological excavations have nothing to do with the Hays. If it is thus but who are the real owners of this geography, culture and history? They are not Armenians at any case.
Alexander Anniskiy wrote in his work of the "Istoriya armyanskoy cherkvi" ("The history of the Armenian churches): "Moisey Xorenski's writings about the old history of Armenian people supposedly basing on the old historical sources are distorted of historical facts, which were fabricated. If we take into consideration that in the history there is no sign about the political unity, power or culture of the Armenians. In this case, it is necessary to come to conclusion that the Armenian people had none of the above mentioned elements. It appears that the Armenians always lived semi-numbered, in the form of wild tribes" (A.Anninskiy. "History of the Armenian churches").
We consider that the conclusion of A.Anninskiy is absolutely right. Because as a result of the archeological excavations concerning to the ancient periods, there were found none of the material evidences of the Armenians. The main point is that the territories which the Armenians pretend to be theirs, that is to say, the territories like the geography of Assuriya (Assyria -SB) , Urartu, Kilikiya (Cilicia - SB) and etc. both from the archeological standpoint, and from the view point of the written and other sources are the territories which are investigated perfectly. In fact, just as during the ancient periods, in the next periods there are seen none of the signs of Armenians. The Armenians search for their roots, their old states in the East. But both during the periods of Asurlar (Assyrians-SB), Midiya (Media SB), Manna (Mannaeans-SB), Ahmaniler (Achaemenid-SB) and during the periods of Alexander of Macedon (Macedonia -SB), or Seleviks (Seleucid -SB) there are not met the names of Armenians during the serious events happened at that times.
In this case to try to own the old Urartu state is nothing but the Armenian ambition or lies. Except, the Armenians who search for their old states in the East, at times say that their old state was in Balkans. So, the unreal dreams about the old Armenian state arouse ironical smile on the serious historians. But let's for a moment think that Urartu was the Armenian tsar kingdom. In this case, let's look through the geography of the place where that state was situated. In none of the historical sources the borders of the state of Urartu continued up to Chuxursedd, Zangibasar, Zangezur. Goyje, or up Garabagh. The provinces we mentioned above, were always historical Azerbaijan lands. If it is thus, with which right the Armenians pretend that those lands were theirs.? Even the head of the terrorists S. Sarkisyan says that as if Azerbaijan is only 100 years old. It appears that in no case neither the present Armenia nor Garabagh aren't the ethnic lands of Armenians.
* II (second) question: Are there any relations of the Armenians with the Christian temples in the Caucasus?
Let's again base on the work of "Istoriya Armyanskoy cherkvi" (The history of the Armenian churches) For many centuries the "old Armenians" created none of the national examples in the fields of science, including in the art. Their writings began to appear after V century. It isn't surprising that they have nothing in the fields of religion and faith too! These thoughts are justifying and real that none of the Armenian historian could be able to disprove the facts. The Armenians always mastered the faith of the people of whose obedient they were. During the period of Ahmaniler they mastered Hormuz coming from the East wisdom, the different Gods coming from the Byzantines, the divines coming from the Assurs as their own religious ideology. The period lasting till the appearing of Christianity it had happened in this way. Then in the primary Middle Ages in the Near East and in the territories adjoining them Christianity began to be spread.
In 313 the Albanian tsar Urnayir also adopted Christianity. So, in the territory of the modern Azerbaijan Christianity began to gain strength. (2, Moisey. Kalankatuklu). Till VII century, that is to say till the period Moslem was created Christianity was spread enough among the God loving Turks. In the territory of Albany there were built a number of abbeys and churches. There began the hegemony period of Christianity. The Polovtisian Turks who were the supporters and who spread that religion translated "Bible" into their own languages. During VII-IX centuries in the Caucasus the period of spreading of Islam resulted with the failure of Christianity. In that period Saljuqs (Seljuks-SB) and Oguzes adopted the religion of Moslem and came to the Caucasus. It resulted with the conflicts between the local Turks and Polovtsians. The Armenians used from those conflicts.
The Armenians who lived up that period in the different geography began to move to the Caucasus and achieved to set up unity with the Christian Polovtsians. Supposedly, in that period the Armenians had already adopted Christianity. If we believe to what the Armenians say, these events happened in 340-344's. Here it is necessary to explain an interesting point. In fact, in that period (VII-IX centuries) those who moved to the Caucasus and made efforts to create unity with Polovtisians were not Ermen Turks but the stocks of Hay. The name of the Ermen was one of the parts of the local Polovtsians. So, the Hays ran from Moslem-Turkish armies who invaded the Near East and Anadolu and tried to find shelter to the local Polovtsians, Ermen. As soon as they had unity with them they began to distort the history of the local Ermens and Polovtsians, and began to translate the Christian texts which were in the Polovitsian language. And the Polovtsians began to use the Hay language in the daily life. In fact, it was in favor of the local Polovtsians to master this strange language. Because when they spoke in their own languages their blood brothers, Moslem Turks, Oghuzes, who were their religion enemies could understand them very well. It caused the problems in the protecting the military secrets, it increased their incline to the religion of Islam. That was why the beys of Polovtisians mastered the Hay language willingly, and tried to protect themselves from the hegemony of Oghuz adding to the difference of religion also the difference of the language.
So, they wanted to protect all the national- cultural and religious monuments situated in the Southern Caucasus. This historical chance gave the Hays great support, it gathered speed the assimilation of Ermens and Polovtsians. The Hays had great chance which they didn't have during all the history. The two Turks would fight and the Hays would be religious- ideological leaders. At last, they would also turn to an elite in this collection. While they were slaves they would be masters. That was why they learned the language of Polovtisian quickly, then complied dictionaries, they changed all the religious texts of Polovtsians into Hay language.
* III (third) question: But where are the texts in Polovtsian language? It can't be that all of them were lost! Is there any evidence?
Yes..!!! We think that it would be better to begin the text in the Polovtsian language with the praying to Xristos.
an other praying:
As it is seen from the praying the Christian Polovtsians addressed Isus Xristos at times as the God, and at times as the Bey. In their religious lexicon still there is not "Boq" or "Allah". Tanri was their old God and Boq in Christianity and Allah in Islam are the same. That was why both Christianity and Islam are adopted by the Turks easily. Because there is no religiousspiritual or religious-psychological barriers. The faith of Tanrichiliq formed good religious -ideological base for polytheism. The Hays had come from monotheism in spite of adopting Christianity they couldn't master or understand it spiritually. There is need to the broad explanation or propaganda. In this case, found support in Polovtsians. The religious texts of the Ermen Polovtsians were translated into Hays' language just because of this reason.
Just here let's present another text in the languages of Hay-Polovtsians. This is the sequence of the years in the old Turks.
The translation of the text from the language of Polovtsian into the Armenian language
which shows the squence of the years in the old Turkish language.
The Hays learned from Polovtsian- Ermens not only the religion but also the norms of the daily life, the juridical, even medical and other necessary things. One of the examples of such kind of things connected with health reached up present time. This is the recipe of long-lived life which was taken from Polovitsian-Ermens. Thinking that it will be interesting for our readers, we present that recipe.
We give one of the praying texts. Let's sum up the praying texts in Polovtsian language by givinig another example.
If we look through into the text of the praying, we can see that Polovtsian language is too native to our modern language. In spite of being different the dialect of JiqatayPolovtsian and the dialect of Oghuz, but it seems that in the Middle Ages this difference wasn't as much as in the present time. Of course, our purpose isn't to investigate the language problems of the Polovtsian texts (I think it can be an interesting theme for our linguistics) let's return to our theme. As it is seen the history which is said by the Armenians that as if it is the history of Hays isn't the real history of Hays. (That is to say, the Hays who are known by all the world as Armenians). This history is the history of Polovtsian- Ermen starting from Baqrat till Vaspurakan. (From Baqatir, that is to say from Bahadir till Bas-VurHakan). The history hidden in the churches, especially, at present in the Echmiedzin church is just our history. While investigating the historical documents, we saw one note of the great turkologist and historian, Academic Marr. Marr confessed pitifully in his investigation of "Spisok rukopisey Sevanskoqo monastira" ("List of manuscripts of the abbey of Sevan") that while being acquainted with the archives materials, the Armenians gave him few sources. The academic emphasized that just when late Patikanov was there in 1879, he got information about 180 documents. But in 1887 they said to me that there were only 111 documents. They showed me only some of those documents. But in order to use the documents they didn't give me anything.
The example of the text teaching religion in the abbey.
The original of the pray written in armenian language in the
Polovtsian alphabet. The translation is given in the following
If those documents were the sources concerning to the history of Hay, but why didn't the Hays show them to the great historians". Only because of one reason: on those documents the operation of distortion hadn't been finished yet...Up today that operation hasn't finished either... We consider that, the most important and strategic purpose of the modern Azerbaijan History Studying must be to return back our stolen history - to return back to ourselves the Polovtsian- Ermen history. At the end I want to express my gratitude to Academic Ramiz Mehdiyev for his valuable work of "Gorus-2010: the season of absurd theatre" for he presented such an urgent problem, drew the attention of society to such important problem.
Following the sign of the song or a Polovtsian girl Sari Gelin (Yellowish bride)
[Sarı, Tr.=Yellow ; Gelin, Tr.=Bride -SB]
Let your mother die, grandmother die or Sinan, Sari gelin?
The song of Sari gelin is too native for each Azerbaijani. Firstly, it is because of the reason that the words of this song were written in the literary style created by the part of Boyat of the Turks of Oghuz, that is to say , in the genre of bayati. In all, the song consists of seven syllables, written in the simple rhythm. This song is loved much for it was written keeping all the positive qualities of the genre of bayati, written with clear way of expression, and just folk language. Bayati is an example of creation specific only to the Turks. This style is an example of folk art mostly used by the Turkmen of Iraq and Azerbaijanis, in none of the folk art of other people it isn't used.
The second reason why this song has become much popular and why it is loved much, is connected with its content. The song deals with an ill-fated love story and this story is described with too touching words. The third point that makes this song be loved much, is its being based on the art of ashug which is another example of folk art. At first, it isn't seen that this song has accordance with the melody of ashug, but while listening to the song attentively, in the upper layers of it there are felt the rhythms of one of the oldest songs melody of ashug, "Irevan chuxuru" ("Irevan hollow"). As if the melody of "Irevan chuxuru" is sounded more slowly, plaintively, sorrowfully in the melody of "Sari gelin", as if the melody doesn't want the story of love to come to an end, and mourns grieving to this hopeless love. But why do the others want to own this song which is from the beginning till the end is the carrier of the spirit of Turks, both with its words and its music? Is there any real history of this song?! If there is, how is its history? We shall try to find answers to the above mentioned questions.
The folk story Sari gelin in the creative activity of Huseyn Javid
Firstly, it is necessary to note that the content of the song of Sari gelin existed in our folk-lore is one of the folk examples. Then it became musical, afterwards the story of this song was a partly reflected in the plot of the work of "Sheikh Senan" of the great playwright Huseyn Javid. Both in the work of "Sheikh Senan" and in the folk song of Sari gelin the boy lover is a Moslem, but the girl lover is a Christian. Both of the examples of creative activity were based on the dramatic plot. But the likeness isn't only the above mentioned ones, let's explain in details. It seems that while writing the main plot line of "Sheikh Senan" genius Huseyn Javid included there the story of the folk example which was popular among the people. Of course, the plot was enriched with Javid's intellect, mind, scientific- philosophical outlook, bright talent and perfect literary thinking. The writer makes the reader remain face to face with the contradictions of the religious philosophy and worldly philosophy, even with the harmony of them. But at the same time inside of this rich plot the main simple and sincere line, the eternal and eternal ill -fated love story brightens like a pearl.
Our purpose isn't to analyze the figurative qualities of the work, that is why let's try to clear up the point of the relation between "Sheikh Senan" and Sari gelin.
Is the primary written source really, the primary one?
I haven't chosen this title accidentally. Because of having relations with our theme we shall call the source which I based on, to be the primary source. (Then I shall direct to more older written source). In this source there are interesting facts connected with the history of the song of Sari gelin. The work that I present as the source is the book of memories of "In the ways of the Caucasus" by the Ottoman writer Ahmet Refik Altunay.
The author is a military man who took part in the first World War in the Ottoman army with the rank of sotnick. After the war he worked as a history teacher at the Istanbul University and then took different posts. After the first World War in Istanbul he organized a staff consisting of the foreign journalists on the purpose of to deliver to all the world the genocides and crimes of the Armenians against the Turks. Between the dates of 17 April and 20 May in 1918, he organized a travel to Anadolu. Within the frame of the travel together with the delegations they come till Kars, Sariqamish (Sarıkamış-SB), Ardahan, Artvin and Batum. Alongside with traveling all over Anadolu and showing the delegations the results of Armenian barbarism he also wrote the elegies, the examples of folklore, in some cases the personal tragedies connected with this tragedy. A.R. Altunay wrote that in spite of they were in the outlying villages of Anadolu, there the local people spoke Turkish language fluently. After reading the examples of poems and writing examples it becomes clear that the language that he characterized like "fluent Turkish" was the Azerbaijan Turkish.
Altunay met with a person named Ali in the village of Merdinik of Ardahan. He was interested with his own tragedy and the song sung by him drew his attention. Originally, Ali was from the village of Oxchu which was completely destroyed by the Armenians. According to our investigations at present this village is the village of Oxchuoghlu (Okçuoğlu-SB) in the town of Amasiya (province of Shoreli) in the Republic of Armenia. The population of the village were killed by the Armenians. Russian unities, some parts of the people were refugees. Ali's fate brought him to the village of Merdinik of Ardahan (note: Ardahan and Amasiya were adjoining geography, beforehand there was intense friendship and relationship among the people). While looking at the mountains, to the hills of Koroghlu, to the rising sun from there, he sang so sorrowful songs that as if he was just the boy lover himself, who created those songs and wanted to pass to our spirits the grief of his heart by screaming. This was Altunay's thought who listened to his song. The best song sung by Ali was "Sari gelin".
Three secrets of one song R.Altunay told such a story about the theme of the song. A Turkish boy loved a Christian girl who lived in his village. He watched her when she went to the fields in the morning, and in the evenings while the cattle returned back he watched the beauty of his lover and tried to console the fire of his spirit. He loved the girl so much both in mind and heart, so, one of the days he took a cross and went to the church together with the Christians. He sat in one of the corners of the church and watched the praying of his lover and others who belonged to the girl's religion.
Then he sang sorrowfully, grievingly the following song:
I came to the church, looked at her cross,
I was admired at her thick hair.
Girl, if only I took you among the Moslems,
If only Sinan died, Sari gelin,
Oh, I value you much more the wealth of world.
It is pity, R.Alunay gave only a couplet of the song. But inside of one couplet there is too interesting information. First, it becomes known from the history of the song that a Turkish boy wrote this song for the Christian girl who lived in his village. Secondly, and the most important point is that the author of the song is Sinan. Third point is that both the Christians and the Turks lived together in the same village. What does it mean? I shall answer this question a bit later. Now we already know that the author of the song is a Moslem Turk named as Sinan. (I don't use the word of Moslem Turk accidentally-1) We also know that the word of Sinan is pronounced in Anadolu, but we - Azerbaijanis pronounce it like Senan. It appears the person named as Sinan in the song and the image in the work of "Sheikh Senan" are the same persons.
The philosophy of Sheikh Senan and love
In order to turn this story to the philosophical drama, great Javid took Senan to Medina, Caaba, and rose him up to the rank of Sheikh in the Islam religion. He turned the simple Christian girl to a nun. So, he made the problem to be dramatic, and approached the story in the common religious-philosophical and religious -social contents. By presenting the misfortunes brought to humanity by the religious discrimination and fanatism, he wanted to give lessons to humans. At the same time, approaching the theme from the philosophy of monotheism, the playwright softened the severe critical positions between the two religions by Sheikh Senan's humanist approaching. Sheikh Senan adopted to drink wine in return if they agreed to give the girl to him, and when his friends mocked at him he reminded them that wine was also one of the gifts of the God, then he wore cross and he explained it in the way that in our religion Isa was also adopted as a prophet. Then he burnt " Koran" and he said to those who objected his action that it was just the paper which was burnt, "Koran" would be eternal like the divine wisdom. Then he agreed with grazing swine, and presented it as an ordinary service to his lover. So, by proving that love was the highest feeling, he believed that the God which endowed him those feelings would forgive him too. This is the position of a devout scientist of theology, of Sheikh, arising from his perfect faith, from his perfect outlook, from his higher and humanist belief. The Sheikh who had some hesitations in this position faced to the God and complained:
I am grieving, my God, what is this torture?
It is both trouble and tasting entertainment.
The love is in itself a happiness
It is also another kind of paradise
I have no more strength , my God!
My God, haven't you any kindness?
Why did you create me, my God?
An angel sent by the God answered to the hesitations and complaining of the Sheikh.
Don't worry, respected Senan
The God hasn't forgotten you.
You have been sent support
The God is noble and kind.
Angels don't reproach you, believe me,
Don't worry, hi, great Senan!
With these words it was put an end to the anxiety and expectation. The angels said that the God was always together with him. On a roundabout way their steps in the way of love is exonerated. That is why it is just the love that makes both Sheikh Senan , Sinan and Sari gelin be everlasting. It is the God's estimation of being this song to be famous. Passing from the generation to other generation.
What do the names mean?
Now let's again return to our theme. It is interesting that in his plays Huseyn Javid gave his Georgian images the Georgian names, for example, Serqo, Simon, Nino, or to the Arabian images he gave Arabian names, for example, as Zehra, Ezra,Serda, Ablulla, Mervan, and he gave Azerbaijani images the Azerbaijani names, for example, as Oghuz, Ozdemir and etc. It shows that how attentively, and especially, sensitively the author approached to the national character of the images, even to the choosing of the names. If it is thus, it rouses surprise why the name of the girl is Xumar, and her father's name is Platon, who are seen as Christian Georgians. I wonder didn't genius Huseyn Javid know 3 or 4 Georgian names? Maybe willingly he gave the girl name of Xumar, and her father's name as Platon. Of course, Huseyn Javid, who studied in Istanbul, who for many times went to Batumu from Baku and from there in ship went to Istanbul, knew tens, hundreds of Georgian names. Even he knew a bit Georgian language. But why he didn't give the girl and her father, whom he made rise to the levels of heroes, the Georgian names? The secret is hidden here. Either Huseyn Javid knew who were the heroes of his work or knew that they were not Georgians. That was why he refused from giving them Georgian names, he wanted the future generation to investigate who they were.
But why Platon, Xumar or what was H. Javid's secret?
If it is thus who was Christian Xumar whom Sheikh Senan fell in love, and who was her father Platon? Let's again begin from Huseyn Javid citing from Platon. Platon is tippler and drunkard. He tortured his wife so much and as a result his wife died. Little Xumar was a witness to all these, and she decided not to marry to live a half nun life. In spite of Platon's being Christian, the local people, even papaz considers him as a strange element. In the work this contradiction is given in the dialogue between Simon and Serqo in the following way:
What? That Platon is a wanderer
To give the girl to Sheikh Senan?
He is dishonorable
He took an oath on the God's son-Isa
He pressed his hand on Bible believing
He is so insistent man
He will make the girl unhappy, make her die…
Aha…! I think here Huseyn Javid knowingly or unknowingly lays bare the secret of his hero. Firstly, the author called Georgian Simon as a wanderer, secondly, dishonorable and insistent. The first and the second qualities are Georgian egoism against to Platon. Because in spite of being Christian, he wasn't a Georgian. That was why he is considered lower by the Georgians. The third quality is Platon's national-ethnic quality, insistent. If he wasn't a Georgian, or an Armenian, but who was he? Of course, he was a Christian Polovtsian…Of course!
Sari gelin in the more older sources than the primary sources…
Just here let's deepen our investigation and return some centuries back. Let's try to find the Christian-Polovtsian version of the song of "Sari gelin". In one of my investigations I had noted that Christian-Polovtsians removed to the outlying after SeljuqIslam's coming to Azerbaijan, they began to live in the places near to the Christian collections. One of the conservative Christian Polovtsians was Platon. According to Huseyn Javid the events happened around Tiflis, but according to R. Altunay the events happened around Ardahan. Both of the two places are the outlying places where Christianity and Islam were crossed.
Now let's return to the above mentioned theme. In the story told by R. Altunay, both Senan and Sari gelin were from the same village. Half part of the village were Christians and half of the villages were Moslems. It appears that some parts of the Polovtsian Turks adopted Islam, the second part, which were more conservative or religious elite remained in the traditional religion. But in spite of it they had one graveyard. At the same graveyard there was buried a grandchild of Christian Turks lived before 100 years ago (by the way, at present in the town of Dmanisi of the Republic of Georgia there is such kind of graveyard) It appears that it was because of this reason Christian Platon was reproached by his devout brothers, his being called as wanderer or persistent, was because of his being Polovtsian.
Ukraine or Desti-Polovtsian version of Sari gelin
Now let's return to investigate the unknown version of the song of "Sari gelin" which was famous among the Christian Polovtsians who lived on the north-west shores of the sea of Azov. The original of the song that is protected under secret stamp that we got with difficulty and the author's name we don't mention knowingly. The original of the song is sounded thus:
Hi, girl, the end of hair mustn't be braided.
They won't give you to me.
Come and let's run together
It is dark, they won't see us.
Hi, girl, your hair has eight layers,
Cut one of them, sell to me.
If your parents agree come with me
And sleep in our home this night.
By analyzing this poem shortly, alongside with proving that the words of the song of "Sari gelin" belongs to the Christian Polovtsians, we shall be able to explain the content of the song that is sung at present. Because up today we can't find any relations between the hemistiches of "the end of hair mustn't be braided" and "They won't give you to me". That is to say, we can't understand what relation can be between these hemistiches. Because of not knowing the relation of these hemistiches, the refrain of the song is sung at times like the hemistich of "Alas, let Sinan die, Sari gelin" or either like "Alas, let your mother die" or "Alas, let your grandmother die". It is clear that the mother of Sari gelin had already died. It couldn't be her mother to prevent not to join them each other. The author, who was himself the boy lover cursed himself. "Let Sinan die" he said. In fact, in the text of this song, the author showed his name clearly. From time to time because of not understanding the content of the song, they sung it distorting.
Now let's return to the "contradictions" in the text of the song.
F.A.Nikolayev's bitter and hopeless confession
Firstly, it must be noted that the Polovtsian version of the song of Sari gelin was written from the name of Christian Polovtsian named as F.A.Nikolayev who lived in Ukraine at the end of 1800's. At the same time, it becomes known that during that time A.F. Nikolayev was too old, and it also becomes known that F.A.Niklayev lost his hope that nobody would speak in his language (he called as "our language"). That is to say, the history of the song goes to the far past. To the far past when between the Caucasus Polovtsians and Desti-Polovtsians there were cultural, spiritual, social - economical relations. It means that the story spoken in the South Caucasus, or a song sung there, could spread orally to Ukraine, to the shores of Dnepr. On the contrary, the words of this song couldn't be spread around the shores of Azov. So, there is one reality which has no need to be proved. Sari gelin is a Polovitsian song. All what we wrote above, prove all these. But we again continue our investigation and explain the text of the song to ourselves, to our inner auditorium.
What does it mean "the end of the hair must not be braided"?
Let's begin from the first hemistich of the song. In both of the version as if the first hemistich is the same:
"The end of the hair must not be braided"- Azerbaijani version
"Hi, girl, they don't braid the end of the hair"-Polovtsian version
In the old Turks there were interesting elements connected with the social origin, social status of the people. It showed itself in dressing, in the form of hair, arms, in the daily used things and etc. In fact, it is thus at present too. Wearing of a ring, even to which finger to wear, or how the women have to pluck their brows and etc. One of such kind of elements that defined the social origin and status was hair. The old Turks always grew long hair. When the children reached to the teenage years, they would braid the end of the hair of the girls in order to be distinguished from the boys. Even in some cases in order to consider the boy and the girl "deyikli" (betrotheds) since their childhood years, the parents used to braid the ends of the boy's and girl's hair together. In fact, it is thus in nowadays too. It was the old variant of to be betrothed since childhood years. Concretely, it is seen from the content of the song that we investigate, the boy lover lost his hope to join his girl lover. The girl lover is unapproachable for him. Their hair would never be braided with each other's, their destiny stars would never join. The plaintive grief and the sorrow making hearts ache is connected with this hopelessness.
What was said by Polovtsian Trandafilov of Novobeshev
In order to strengthen my explanation I want to present you one poem written by the Christian Polovtsian named as I.L.Trandafilov who lived in the station of Novobeshev (Novobeshev-it is the word combination made of the word of "new" in Russian and "five homes" in Polovtsian language) in Ukraine during 1800's:
I was Todora, I became Todur,
For 12 years I was a shepherd.
I didn't ask my black hair to braid,
I kept unknown that I was a girl.
The poem was written by the girl who suffered privations because of some reasons. This girl presented as Todur and worked as a shepherd and during those years she didn't braid her hair for they didn't know she was a girl. This poem is the proof to the social-cultural status connected with hair that was mentioned above. It appears that they used to braid the end of the hair. Altogether, the boy -lover's anxiety about braiding or nor braiding of the hair had some reasons. At the same time between the hemistich of "the end of the hair mustn't be braided" and the hemistich of "they won't give you to me" there is straightly a relation. Now we opened one of the secrets of the song which remained secretly for years. The second secret is the first hemistich of the second couplet of the Polovtsian version of the song:
Another secret of Sari gelin or why "eight layers"…
Hi, girl, your hair has eight layers,
Cut one of them, and sell me.
What does it mean? Why just eight layers? Supposedly, while saying eight layers there is meant eight braids. But what are eight braids? Why do at present in some of our villages they braid eight braids of the girls' hair? What does make us to protect this tradition as if dictated us by our memory?
Before explaining the meaning of "eight braids" or "eight layers" let's begin from the eight cornered star on our banner. Even pay attention to the eight cornered designs on our carpets. All of them have only one meaning. They are the directions, coordinates of the map given to the 24 parts of Oghuz by the khan of Oghuz. These coordinates were given in order to conquer all the world. These signs passed through the ups and downs of the centuries and found the place on our banner. These eight corners symbolize four points - east, north, west and south and four half points between these points. On the roundabout way it symbolizes the ruling of the Turks on the whole world. The transferring of these eight layers, or eight directions into the love affairs, means to own the heart of the lover. That is to say "only I want to own your heart. There must be nobody except me". As it appears the braids of the hair of the girl is the boy lover's world of love, and his wish is to own this world only himself.
The third key point is that in the refrain of the song, the word of Sinan was replaced by the word of "mother" or "grandmother", and we explained it above.
Is Sari gelin's being yellowish symbolic or real?
One of the knotted points which is much important to be explained, is b to name the hero as Sari gelin. Why Sari gelin? Is here "sari" (yellowish) a symbolic, if it is a symbol what does it explain? Maybe it is called Sari gelin because of the hero was yellowish. As a result of our investigations we come to a conclusion that Sari gelin's family was a Polovtsian family. There is no doubt to it. The word of "poloves" means "Sari" (yellowish). It appears that the word of "Sari" is connected with the pigmentation (the color of her skin) of the skin of Sari gelin. In order to strengthen this version let's go back to the place where the story took place. R.Altunay wrote that the hamlets he traveled were along the river of Jorux. But what does the word of "Jorux" mean? Has this river any relations with Polovtsians? Firstly, it must be noted that "Jorux" is a hydronim. That is to say, it the name of the river. If we study the etymology we learn that how to say, it is ethno- hydroiom.
Jorux, Chorlar, Shorlar and Azerbaijani toponymy
The historians and Turkologists came to the conclusion that chorlar or shorlar are the hun - Polovtsian stocks. With the name of those stocks, that is to say, chorlar or shorlar there are toponymies both in different parts of Azerbaijan, Turkey, Siberia and Russian Federation. The different pronunciations of these words, like shorlar and chorlar are connected with phonetic changing Oghuz Polovtsian dialect. For example, in the centre and in the east of Azerbaijan there are more Oghuzes, they call a plant like we pronounce "shuyud". But in the west, that is to say around the town of Ganja, they call this plant like "chuyud" because there are more people who are the generations of hun Polovtsians.
As it is seen from the above mentioned example, the people who live at present in Novosibisk, whose number is about 2 thousand, and are known in the Turkish Turkology as Shorlar, call themselves like "Chor kishi". It becomes known that the name of the river of "Jorux" is connected with Polovtsian chorlar. In Azerbaijan this word is used in the form of "shor" and it is used in the root of the word of "Sharur" situated in the Nakhchivan autonomic Republic, and in the root of the word of "Shirvan". The local people in Sharur pronounce the name of their town like Sheril (Shortil). It gives the meaning of the hamlet of Shor (Shor Elin). It is the ethnonym with the name of the town. In the word of "Shirvan" there is also the component of" shor". Here the word "shor" takes part as the root of the word. "Shor + van" (Shirvan). Here "shor" is the ethnic name of "shors" "Van" is the form of the word of "ban" used in the epos of "Dada Qorqud". In the epos it deals with the "ag-ban" houses. In the archaic meaning of the word of "ban" means the settlement, the living places, but at present it means "the roof of the house". Another ethnonym connected with "shorlar" is the name of the province of Ali whom R.Altunay had met. R.Altunay wrote that Ali was from the village of Oxchu. And we noted that this village was the town of Amasiya of the historical West Azerbaijan (at present Armenian Republic).
In the town of Amasiya there was a province in the name of Shoreli. That province was the adjoining territory between the valley of Kars and Ardahan. Just the word of Shoreli is an ethnonym connected with shorlar. Here as it in the ethnonym the components of shor and "el "give the meaning of "shor eli" (the hamlet of shors"). The meaning and the phonetic structure of the two words are the same. The form of creating of a word is also the same. It is necessary to be noted that the name of the river of Jorus is connected with Polovtsians. It appears that all the names, toponymies, hydronymies in the territory are connected with Polovtsians. It increases our insistence being of Sari gelin one of the Polovitsian girls. If to speak another meaning of the word of "sari", some investigations say that it has relations with the sun. It is right, in the old Turks there was the culture of Sun, even fire, but concretely in the text of this song the color of " sari (yellow) has nothing to do with the sun. About it we shall speak in the following topic.
The color of Sari in our other eposes
Now let's investigate our eposes connected with the color of "sari". The epos of "Dada Qorqud" is the main epos of the Turks. One of the parts of the epos is " Qanli Qoca oghlu Qanturali" . Here I want to cavil at our historians and literary critics. The above mentioned name must be Kanqli Qoja oghlu Kanq Turali". Because it is just like thus in the original. "Kanqlar" is a part of Turks and at present are known like Kangarliler in Azerbaijan. Once I was acquainted in the city of Almati with a living Kanq (in his passport his nationality was written as Qazakh). The short plot of the epos is thus. It was marriage time of Qanturali, but he didn't want to marry to a Turkman girl. " If I embrace the thin Turkman girl closely her navel may break. I want to marry to a girl who is able to sword, or can mount a horse." He directed to the internal parts of Oghuz. He couldn't find a girl. Then he went to the outer of Oghuz. But again he couldn't find the girl he searched for to marry. At last, he passed the borders of Oghuzes, came to Trabzon, got information about yellow dressed Seljan khatun, in the hamlet of godless. In order to get Seljan khatun he had to fight with bull and lion. And at last he got the girl and returned back. As it is seen, Seljan khatun was dressed yellow, she was godless (not Moslem). Except them there was no difference with between the stock of Qanturali and the stock to which Seljan khatun belonged. That is to say, the yellow dressed Seljan was a Polovtsian girl.
Christian Polovitsians in the epos of "Danishmendname"
In my article of "All people exist as much as their nationalcultural memories or is Akdamar an Armenian church?" I had dealt with the Christian Polovtsians who had tsar kingdom in Trabzon, and had written that their ruler's name was Tadik, and there is such a name in the Orxon-Yenisey monuments, in the Goyturk texts. Even I had cited from the epos of "Danishmendi".
I wrote in that article that those Christian Polovitsians together with the Greeks in the summer pasture of Aybasti (at present near the city of Ordu in Turkey) fought against the warlord of Seljuq, Melik Danishmendi Qazi, and he headed the combined Polovitsian - Greek army. It was noted in my above mentioned article that the history of settlement of Polovitsians (Janiks) around Trabzon belonged to II-IV centuries BC. And with another supposition to VII-IX centuries BC. If to take into consideration that our historians consider the events happening in the epos of "Dada Qorqud" belong to that period. (I partly agree with them. H.B). If it is thus we can say that the yellow dressed Seljuq was one of the Polovtsians that Tadik belonged. It appears that we have two information about two Polovtsian girls that we got from exact sources. In both of the cases they are connected with the color of Sari (yellow) . Now we must come to one conclusion: Were the Polovitsian girls beautiful or wholly the color of yellow symbolize all of them?
How is the mother of Polovitsians described in the epos of "Oghuz khan"?
Now let's address to our other epos and try to explain the relations between Polovitsian and the color of yellow. This source is honorable epos of "Oghuz khan". In the epos it is noted that one day, while hunting in a forest Oghuz khan saw a girl in the hollow of a tree that grew in the middle of the lake. The eyes of the girl were much blue than the sky, her hair was yellow, and as waving as a sea, her teeth were like pearls. Oghuz khan married to that girl. Without continuing the story in the epos, let's pay attention to the points connected just the theme of our article. It appears that, the blue eyed, yellowish girl sat in the hollow of a tree. The meaning of the word of hollow (koghush) in our archaic Turkish is "qopujuq". All the historians and Turkologists adopt that the word of Polovtsian ("Qipchaq") came from the word of "qapujuq". That is to say starting from the primary source, the Polovtsians are connected with the color of yellow. Because their faces and hair were yellowish. Just when the Russians met Polovtsians they called them Polovtsians (polovech) for their such kind of quality. Sari gelin was also yellowish because she was also a girl of Polovtsian, she carried the qualities to which her origin belonged. That is to say, here is no need any abstraction. Sari gelin isn't the symbol of the sun. Just at present the Turkish men mostly like yellowish girls.
How is Sari gelin in the Armenian language?
Well, why don't the Armenians who want to own " Sari gelin" ask themselves a question why their ancestors wrote this song in the Turkish language?! Because we know that the folk art of all nations are in their own languages. Secondly, Hays are from the Indian- Qarachi origin, their girls are not yellowish. If they want to prove that their girls are yellowish, let them examine if we are right or not. So, Sari gelin doesn't look like the Armenian from the anthropological qualities, or color, or other national- ethnic qualities. How can she be an Armenian girl? Let the Armenians and their supporters answer our questions. Because their answers will be absurd not depending on what they say.
We shall tell how the word of Sari gelin is sounded in the Armenian language. The Armenians (hays) say "deghn" to the word "sari" (yellow). They call "gelin" as "hars". If they like this song let them compose a new song as "deghn hars". But Sari gelin is ours!
At present our songs are distorted too
In fact, in most cases the words of our songs are distorted by our singers. We must note pitifully that the folk song of "Irevanda xan qalmadi" ("There remained no khan in Irevan") was distorted as "Irevanda xal qalmadi" ("There remained no birthmarks in Irevan"). Now this song is sung like "Qarabaghda xal qalmadi" ("there remained no birthmarks in Qarabagh"). It must be put an end to such kind of misrepresentations. Because folk songs are created in exactly historical times and localize in themselves the events of the periods, they play as if the sources of information. For example, the song of "Irevanda xan qalmadi" ("There remained no khan in Irevan") reflects the failure of Irevan khanate and the terrible migration. Afterwards another boy lover considered her lover's moving a personal tragedy and resembles it to the tragedy of Irevan migration. The words of the song that the singers sing on the melody of "Gilavar" are the followings:
Hi, agalar, look at the going ones,
My lover leaves leaving me in tears.
All of luggage was loaded
As if all the people of Irevan are moving.
All these are interesting and demand special investigation. That is why we must attentively approach to our folk songs which are our national - cultural wealth, they must not be misrepresented, if it is needed some thoughts must be explained. On the contrary, we shall have to investigate the history of those songs as in order to explain the song of Sari gelin we had to investigate its history.
Note: In order to complete my investigation I had to use archive materials of four countries: Turkey, Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Azerbaijan. From Kazakhstan, from the library of Economics and Consulting University, my friends sent me valuable information. But alongside with all, the spirit of Sari gelin was helpful to me in finding the sources that I searched for. On the contrary, at times one searches for years but gets no information. This time as if whatever I was searching for, it found me itself. Sleep in peace, the Polovtsian girl, Sari gelin!
Bayan Monastry - 4th-5th c - Kipchak (Polovetsk)-Alban Turks
Daşkesan (Dashkesan) - Azerbaijan