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24 Mayıs 2016 Salı

The Turkic Toponyms Of Armenia and İran







The Turkic Toponyms Of Armenia


A book named "The Caucasian Calendar" dated from 1908 deals with brutality of Armenian dashnaks and genocide carried out by them against our nation. Looking through this ashamed document it comes out that in Irevan (Yerevan) province up to March 1918 hundreds of Azerbaijani villages had become ruined. Reading the historical truth presented in "The Caucasian Calendar" it becomes very hard to breathe, one can not hide his anger, hate. And I can not be indifferent to all these brutalities of Armenian blood suckers, because I myself met, spoken with those whose brothers, sisters, fathers, relatives have been killed, babies, grey-headed old women and men set on fire and buried alive, and villages, settlements razed to the ground. 


According to this book the village Chobankere (Armenia, Echmiadzin district) consisted of 338 houses. The population of the village was 2417. And my parents lived there too. My childhood passed among the ruins of our burnt village. The misfortunes depicted in 'The Caucasian Calendar" have been inprinted upon my memory. While recalling the inhuman brutalities carried out by the Armenians against the Azerbaijanese a man hardly keep his head, wants to damn the whole world and the life looses its significance, beauty, wonder. The murderous deeds done by the Armenians at the four uyezds of Armenia are spoken in this Calendar. 15155 Azerbaijani villages with population 135 thousand were ruined in a short period. In the XIX and XX centuries, most likely the Armenian dashnaks have had and will have only one dreamy wish: "to build the Great Armenia". The avid eyed Armenians even while sleeping see "the Great Armenia" in their dreams and the end of this wild wish is not seen. So, we Azerbaijanese must not forget that they have been living with this foul intention and they are able to bring many misfortunes to our nation in future.


If 'The Caucasian Calendar" were published now there would be found its expression the description of how 210 thousand Azerbaijanese were forced to leave the various districts of Armenia, their historical motherland. In 1988 the Azerbaijanese lived there were obliged to leave about 6 thousand square kilimetres of lands (arable lands, fruit gardens, pastures). This area is considerably more than the Upper Garabag where the Armenians live. The difference between these two data is that up to 1918 the genocide against the Azerbaijanese had been carried out during the power of tsarist Russia, and in 1988 the expatriation of the Azerbaijanese was carried out during the USSR where Azerbaijan was considered one of the republics with equal right of one state. If in the past the Azerbaijanese had been killed by dashnaks, then nowdays they were exterminated by the leaders of neodashnaks who worn the communist's clothing.


If the first person who ruled the tsarist Russia during the Armenian-Azerbaijani national slautering years up to 1918 stood at one moment for instigation, at another moment for observation, then those who were at the head of so called communism building country taking observer stand could not understand the real point of the problem. So, recent 80 years the slautering and deportation have taken place before the eyes of two structurally and ideologically different state systems. Generelly, in both cases the slautering has been taken equally...


’The Caucasian Calendar" opens the cover of many hidden deeds. 190 villages located in Echmiadzin district where my childhood passed were ruined absolutely. These villages included 5970 houses, the number of population was 35784. It is to be noted that this published figures are not complete. The names of many villages being a part of Irevan province up to 1918 have been not included this list. For example, the names of tens villages (Jadgyran, Sollu Mehmandar, Garagyshlag, Donuzyeyan (now Zangilar), Hachaparak (now Zahmat), Golgumbat, Ashagy and Yukhary Nejilli, Sarvanlar, Shollu Damirchi, Haji Ellez, Ashrabad, etc.) near our village, ruined and sacked by dashnaks have been not included this document too.


Our village - Chobankere belonged to the first militia-area. There were villages called Molla Dursunlu, Hajilar, Hirampa Ayyarly, Aramly, Zeiva, Kolany, Gargabazar, Gezli, Gamarli, Safibad, Kurekunlu, Ayranly, Patrinj, Ikinji Ayranly and Tos in this area.The old men of our village used to talk that there was a rich man who had some sheepherds. While panic flight he did not leave his home and told loudly: 'There is no need to run away. When the Armenians come I shall give my wealth to them and they will not disturb me". But he was mistaken deeply. The dashnaks appropriated not only his wealth, they killed him by hammering a nail into his head. 


18 Azerbaijani villages have been named in the second militiaarea of the Echmiadzin uyezd. It covered the next villages: Kichikkend, Parsi, Takiye, Parpi, Akhys, Zeynalbulag, Kotekli, Ushu, Nezravan, Angersak, Goshabulag, Gotur, Garajoran, Kurd Ali, Hamamly, Tulunabi, Akarak and Argov. 19 Villages were ruined in the third militia-area of Echmiadzin. They were Yukhary Garkhyn, Ashagy Garkhyn, Shorkend, Turkmenli, Molla Badal, Agjarkh, Kerimarkh, Armydly, lydeli, Janfida, Yukhary Gulubeyli, Ashagy Gulubeyli, Saatly, (Sehhetli), Gamyshly, Motokala, Gatyrabad, Rehber, Pezini and Khojayar. 31 Azerbaijani settlements located at the fourth militia-area of the Echmiadzin uyezd were aiso ruined and sacked: Pertikan, Pirmelek, Sheykhhaji, Karvansaray, Aralykh, Guludervish, Eshnek, Talyn, Mehriban, Irind, Yukhary Gargagonmaz, Ashagy Gargagonmaz, Ashagy Agjagala, Sabunchu, Yukhary Galakut, Ashagy Galakut, Ehengchi, Gazbin, Garagulu, Susuz, Knit, Mustafato, Bozbur Aynaly, Seipangyshlag, Ujan, Bairamali, Gadim Bashir, Agjagala, etc.


The oikonym "Ujan" presented in this document is from the word "uchar" which means waterfall, cataract in the bed of rapid running river. The geographical name Ujar observed at the territory of Azerbaijan giving the same meaning is also from the word "uchar". The toponym Talysh changed by the Armenians has been given as Talin. The initial name of the district centre Talin was Molla Goyje. To the south-west from Talin near the Azerbaijani village called Pirmelek there has been a mineral mine dated from the Stone Age... 


Many stone cutting tools are kept in this mine. 5979 housekeepings functioned in 83 Azerbaijan and 2 Kurd villages distributed in the Echmiadzin uyezd. As it was in 1988 at the end of the XIX century and at the beginning of the XX century the chief Satan was settled in the "sacred" religious centre - Echmiadzin and Armenian nationalist bandits were guided from this settlement. Historically, Echmiadzin has been being the "thinking” brain for Armenian killers. Echmiadzin has been and is the den of main beast of the double-dyed Armenian nationalists. 


In 1987-1988 a group of Kurd intellectuals was caught in a trap by the Armenian nationalists and they gave interviews to mass information media (TV, radio) where they unhonestly blamed the Azerbaijan part. The peoples of Kurd must understand once and forever that the Armenian nationalists can not be their friend, because it was just the Armenians who have pillaged, ruined the homes, villages of Kurds and forced them to leave their birthplaces. In 1988-1989 the people of Kurds settled in Armenia, even including those Kurds who betrayed the Azerbaijanese were expatriated from Armania. It must be a lesson for the Kurds. 


In four militia-areas of the Irevan uyezd the 30 Azerbaijani villages were sacked and ruined cruelly. There lived 19005 people and functioned 3015 households in these 30 villages. The villages of the uyezd which were robbed and ruined are: Damagirmez, Zar, Kamal, Gozejin, Mankus, Okhjavert, Ali Gyrkh, (first militia-area); Agahamzali, Jambajyly, Kharratly, Ulukhanly, Garadagly, Saryjallar, Reyhanly, Habilkend (second militia-area); Sabynchy, Gamarli, Duzhu, Bozvand, Garahamzali, Alpava, Dogguz, Ipekli, Agbash, Novruzlu, Chemendizali (third militia-area); Sederek (fourth militia-area).


The villages pertaining to the third militia-area of the Irevan uyezd and ruined up to 1918 as Mesimli, Dargaly, Chilekhanly, Imanshahly, Garagoyunly, Torpaggala, Chatma, Yamanchaly and the names of other Azerbaijani villages were not included in this list. The villages of Garalar, Shirazly, Shiddi, Boyuk Vedi, Kichik Vedi, Garabaglar, Kortuz, Mengut, Galadibi, Yappa, Shujena, Ovsharev, etc. were a part of the second and third militia-areas of the Irevan uyezd.


The second and third militia-areas of the Irevan uyezd covered the villages which referred to Armenia's administrative districts of Masis (former Zangibasar) and Artashat (former Gamarli). But one cann't find the names of villages situated in the territory of Ararat (former Vedi) district among the robbed, ruined Azerbaijani villages. Because the voluntary armed forces headed by Abbasgulu aga Shadlinsk defended courageously these villages from the army of one-eyed Andronik. Seven villages situated in the territory of Nor Bayazit uyezd were sacked by the Armenian Bandits. They are: Erzekend (first militiaarea); Agzybir, Bygly, Aggala, Eyruveng, Haji Mugan and Rehmankend (second militia-area). There were 668 households and lived 4649 numbers of people in these seven villages. From the villages (Nor Bayazit uyezd, first militia-area) where inhabited the Azerbaijanese  and ruined by the Armenians only one - Erzekan (now it is called Arzakan) has been included in this list. The following villages - Kankan, Guyulu, Goykilsa, Gyrkhbulag, Zar Garagala, Deve, Kharaba, Shahably, Muhub, Arynj, Numus, Fantan, Derechilek (now Sakhgadzor) and the names of other villages distributed in the territory of the Irevan province have been omitted from the list of ruined villages. 


'The Caucasian Calendar" gives information about 75 villages situated in the Surmali uyezd. There were 5493 households and the population numbered 41347. So, within the first 17 years of our century the population of the Surmeli uyezd numbered more than 41 thousand was forced to leave their dwelling-places. They were abased, killed (as it was then in 1988). The majority of this population escaped to the east part of Turkey and some of them were scattered over the districts of Azerbaijan.


The first militia-area of the Surmeli uyezd covered the next villages: Aligochag, Yukhary Bendemurad, Ashagy Bendemurad, Kunda, Dashlyja, Asma, Garaguney, Guljek, Garakeser, Kazymgala, Sichanly, Arhajy, Izdira, Melekii, Sultanabad, Agamahammad, Agaverdi, Arabgirli, Gasymjan, Guzudan, Gazanchy, Kiti, Gulag, Oba, Sarychoban, Yukhary Charkhchy, Ashagy Charkhchy, Yaydilisi, Amarat, Kharaba, Alijan, Huseyn, Zulfugar, Gyzyl Zakir, Gyzylgashlag, Murshudali, Najafli.


As the names of some villages were mispresented they do not follow the lexical norms of the Azerbaijan language. It needs to be studied their initial correct forms. For example, the name of Kunda (in this variant) is a person name in India. But its supposed variant "Kunde" or "Gunde" is a "transparent" toponym. Which of them is correct must be examined. The second militia-area of the Surmeli uyezd covered the following villages: Hasankhan, Goycheli, Jannatabad, Dize, Garagoyunlu, Gyrashbag, Okuzlu, Safargulu, Tokhanshaly, Boyat, Gajar, Kharaba, Alijan, Shirej.


27 villages ruined in the third militia-area are: Inje, Surmeli, Pirli, Osmankoy, Soyudlu, Yukhary Gatyrly, Juvanly, Turaby, Mirzakhan, Suku, Pirseh, Ekerek, Gamyshly, Ashagy Keryurlu, Chinchevad, Garin, Agdash, Agabey, Demirsykhan, Garajoran, Yagly, Alakoma, Ikinji Sichanly, Dashlyja, Kuruachag, Mucha, Ergov. The names of oikonyms of Suki, Kuri-achag and Mucha are to be examined.


Real names of some villages out of 197 villages ruined in the Irevan province have been mispresented so, a man, who is unaware, faces with difficulties to read correctly. We should like to give some examples: Karichlu - Kirechli, Agamzalu - Agahamzali, Karadalaglu - Garadolagly, Saradzhar - Saryjaly, Reganly - Reyhanly, Abilkend - Habilkend, Chamangisalu - Chemendziedi, Argadzhi - Erhajy, Kuzuyudan - Guzuudan, Gegdzhalu - Goycheli, Girampa - Girhampa, Aderdu - Eyyarly, Kelandu - Kolany, Parti - Perpi, Ushi - Ushu, Karadzhoran - Garajaoren, Tulanabi - Tul(u)e nebi, Karkhu Verkhnit - Yukhary Garakhyn, Turkmandu - Turkmenli, Agdis - Arkh, Agja - Arkh, Saatdu - Saatly (Sehhetli), Ragpar- Renjber, etc. 


The names of some settlements found in "The Caucasian Calendar" denote the names of a group of Turkic tribes (Garkhyn, Agzybir, Kharatly, Kirachli, Agdash, Garagoyunlu, Gazvin, Zeyva, Kolany, Saryjaly, Sabynchy, Garadolagly, Boyat, Mugan, etc.). Many geographical names of the Irevan province mentioned above are observed in the territories where the Turkic language nations are spread (Gargabazar, Aralyg, etc.). Among these place names there are many toponyms which denote the profession (Gazanchy, Sabynchy, Inekli, Shirechi, Charkhchy, Kharratchy, Demirsykhan, etc.), the natural conditions (Dashlyja, Garaguney, Sichanly, Gamyshly, Goshabulag, Armydly, lydeli, etc.). At the same time they are ethnonyms. The number of expatriated population of Azerbaijani villages ruined up to 1918 exceeds 100 thousand. The deportation process carried out by the Armenian bandits in 1918 was again repeated with a little change in 1988.


Before the Azerbaijanese had time to forget the wound caused in 1918 they got new and new wounds in 1948 and 1988. The wounds caused by the Armenians to the Azerbaijanese are incurable. The Azerbaijanese must draw themselves up, think over deeply and be ready to answer once and forever to Armenian blood-suckers. Armenians' deeds and avidity force to act so. Sometimes they say that if someone is mad, then another one must be clever. When someone is impatient then the another one is to be patient. While someone is dull, then the another one is to be quick. The knife is about cutting. We are obliged to act seriously...


The Khojaly slautering is one of the most terrible tragedies at the end of the XX century. I believe that the skinned bodies, cut heads, slashed arms, put out eyes, shed bloods of innocent peoples will not be left unanswered...


Once the two boys - Azerbaijani and Armenian were fighting in the street. A grown Armenian man who was observing this scene frequently repeated to Azerbaijan boy in the clear Azerbaijan language: "Ada, bashina vurma" ("Hey, don't strike his head"). At the same time he told to another boy in the Armenian language: "Ara, glkhin tkhi" (i.e. "Hey, strike just his head"). The same situation but in a large scale takes place in our region...


My dreams carry me to the districts of Amasia, Garakilsa, Alverdi (Allahverdi), Dilijan valley, generally to the north-western part of Armenia. O, my God, how many villages, cities, populated with the Azerbaijanese were there. But where are they? What was the reason they began to become empty in 1918 and 1948? And why did this process approach its apogee and with lightning speed become an end in 1988?


We live in a very strange world... At last we must wake up and think seriously about our future generations. We must know that as we are a neighbour with Armenia and it will last forever, there will not be rest, peace and we are forced to overcome many misfortunes. We are grave neighbour with the Armenians and our headache will never leave us untill we live side by side with them. Our ancestors said: "If your neighbour is bad it is better to change your dwelling-place. Now we are in difficulties. Because our ancestors had not idea about the Arabic saying: "Before building your house choose your neighbour". We have been mistaken by choosing our neighbour. Simply, it is our fortune. Let our God help us. But if we are asleep, even the God cann't help us. So, he who has the Armenian neighbour must be awake the whole 24 hours...


The Azerbaijanese have lived in the territory of Armenia for ages. The Azerbaijanese lived in Armenia are a part of the Azerbaijan nation. It means that the formation of the Azerbaijanese once lived in Armenia are organically related to the origin of the Azerbaijan nation. As to us, it may be explained by two facts. First, the territory of late Armenia where the Azerbaijanese lived once was a part of the Albanian state; second, the ancient Turkic elements - tribes taken part in ethnogenesis of the Azerbaijan nation had been settled in Azerbaijan and in the territory of modem Armenia where the Azerbaijanese lived. Of course, it goes back to BC, then the Armenian element had not observed in this territory yet. Therefore, the place names of Azerbaijani origin having an ancient history in the territory of Armenia are of a part of the Azerbaijan toponymy. The exictence of different types of toponyms (ethnotoponym, orotoponym, hydrotoponym, zootoponym, etc.) in the Azerbaijan language shows that the Azerbaijanese are native and the toponyms have passed a long forming period in this language.


The place names of Azerbaijani origin are found in all belts of lowlying and mountainous territories in Armenia. But recent some ten years the Armenians began to change all Turkic place names into Armenian in succession. These attempts were not carried out on the sound root, but on the foundation of nationalistic feelings. So, the policy of nationalism has been transfered on the map. The geographical names are a memory of land. This memory has been given within time and space by people. Then, the place names have been absorbed by lands, marked on maps and materialized in writings by ancestors. New given names in Armenia have no any historical importance.


It is a sacred and urgent duty of the Azerbaijanese to collect all place names which have passed into passive fund from literature and maps and to study them thouroughly. If today we do not  study the geographical names, then the coming generations will not know about the places from where the Azerbaijanese have been expatriated and they will not have a clear imagination about the historical memory which is a part of our nation and we shall be blamed by them. It is known that the Armenians call themselves "hay". They call their land "Hayastan". "Hay" and "Hayastan" are used only in the Armenian language and writing.


According to historians of the early Middle Ages there is no a toponym being explained by the help of the ancient Armenian language. The names of provinces and regions pertained to Armenia are cited in the work called "The Geography of Armenia in the VII Century". No any one of the names of provinces and regions as Kangarak, Gugarak, Tayk, Taran, Gegam, Tuara, Turuberan, Kolt, Katayk, Kolb, Syuni, Shirak, Gorus, Bdjini, Balk, etc. is in the Armenian language.


According to G.A.Geibullayev's researches, the names as Kenger, Gugar, Kol, Katak Pecheneg, Shirak are from the names of tribes, and the toponyms of Tayk, Taran, Gegam, Tuara, Turuberan, Tangriyan, Balk, etc. are explained through the ancient Turkic languages. What does it mean? If the names of provinces and regions are in another language, then does not it mean that these places were inhabited just by those people? Of course, it is so.


We know that the relegious centre of the Armenian nation is Echmiadzin. This city is called Uchkilse by the Azerbaijanese. Even the name of religion centre of the Armenians - Echmiadzin consists of word combination of Turkic language ("ech" - i.e. "uch" - three) and Arabic language nations ("miedzin" - a place of worship). It would be better if the Armenians think about changing of the toponym of "armeni". Why do they reserve the toponyms sounding in Turkic? Let they change their surnames which are of Azerbaijan-Turkic origin. If they act so, they will be a real man. Let Igityan and Zori Balayan also refuse from the Turkic origin words - "igit" and "zor" relatively. 


As the Armenians write, the highest mountain summit in Armenia is Ararat (5165 m). The Azerbaijanese and Turks call this mountain the Agry mountain (Great Agry, Small Agry). The Armenian "especialists" consider so that the name of the Agry mountain is Ararat. In other words, the Ararat is a name of the Urartu state given in the "Bible". So, as this oronym is not of an Armenian word it cann't be explained by the help of the Armenian language. Up to yesterday the name of the city Yerevan was used to be called as Irevan by the Azerbaijanese. The names of the rivers running through Yerevan city were called Gedarchay and Zengichay. One part of the old city was used to be called Tepebashy (now  Gond), other parts - Demirchibulag, Korpubulag. The name of a lake situated in the south- eastern part of the city was called Tokhmaggol. The only bridge built on the Zengi river (now Hrazdan) was known as Panahkhan's bridge (up to 1945). The gardens located in the west, north-west part and now adjoining to Yerevan were called as Derebaglary, Delmebaglary, Kharaba Sarvanlar, Charvakh. The name of the largest mountain range crossed the territory of Armenia was named Agmangal (now Gegam). The Eleyez mountain (ancient form - Alagoz), one of the most wonderful mountains in Armenia has been renamed Aragats. The beauty of mountains, the Goije lake is called now Sevan lake...


There are many questions to be explained. There are many place names in Armenia that I donn't know how they are called now. I should like to cite the former names of some big settlements in the territory of Armenia. Then u reader will be able to have some idea about the names of Azerbaijani origin: Vedi (Ararat), Gamarli (Artashad), Basarkechar (Vardenis), Zengibasar (Masis), Hamamly (Spitak), Garakilsa (Kirovakan), Akhty (Charensavan), Kever (Kamo), Kolagiren (Yumanyan), Gyzylgochu (Gugasyan), Gumru (Leninakan), Mollagoyje (Maralik), Allahverdi (Alaverdi), Ajin (Ani), Duzkend (Akhuryan), Gazanchy (Megralin), Gurdugulu (Oktemberyan), Dereleyez (Yekhegnadzor), Delekin (Arevik), Eleyez (Aragats), Togluja (Krasnoselski), Jalaloglu (Stepanavan), Goyje lake (Sevan), Arpa river (Akhuryan), Ganlyja (Mar-Marashen), etc.


Some place names have been written simply by translating from Azerbaijan into Armenian. In itself it is clear that in this case the first names (i.e. initial, Azerbaijani names) are main, rooted, and the second names (new, Armenian names) are fiction, rootless. The following names may be given as example: Garagol (Seviij), Ishykly mountain (Lyusasar), Derechichek (Sakhgadzor), Gelingaya (Harsanasar), Almaly village (Khynzorashen), Armudlu village (Danzik), Gyrmyzyly village (Garmirashen), etc.


When the Zegibasar district was founded (1938-1988) 95% of its villages consisted of Azerbaijani villages. It covered the next villages: Chobankere, Mehmandar Shollusu, Rahimabad, Garagyshlag, Zehmet, Goygumbaz, Jafarabad, Hajyellaz, Demirchi Shollu, Ashagy Nejilli, Yukhary Nejilli, Zangilar (Donuzyeyan), Ulukhanly, Zangibasar, Sarvanlar, Habilkend, Agahamzali, Arbat, Renjber, Hasanli, Ilkhy reserve, Saryjalar, Reyhanly, Gulujan, Shurakend (Seyidkend), Tezekend, Ajagyshlag. All surrounding microtoponyms of my native village - Boyuk Chobankere were named in the Azerbaijan language (Gobu, Gyr, Armenian ditch, etc.).


The people of Chobankere used to go to the country in early summer. The Eleyaz mountain (now Aragats) is about 4090 m height above sea level. More than 25 country cottages of our villagers were situated around the territory of this mountain. Some of these summer places are: Hajyveller, Hajy Jafar, Hanfaoglu, Sharfoglu, Mursagullar, Hajy Jabbar, Mahmud Agaly, Jafaraga, Kalva Mahmud, Gulalylar, Eiripapaglar, Shahverdiler, Ismailoglu, Khalfaglyogly, Allahverenli, Hazhalbey, Sanamoglu, Hajy Kerimoglu, Pasha Bebiroglu...


I tried to make a list of the names of tribes, families, clans once settled in our village. They reached to 135 names. I should like to express my thanks to Ismail Yagsatanoglu for his help. We consider that it is a great importance for history to write down the names of each village's tribes. The most part of these names is tribe and family names. Gyrdylar, Garabudaglar, Garallar, Gagoylar, Gorrular, Shykhlar, Gnyazlar, Dudular, Zeriflar, Kocherilar, Mursagyllar, Saryllar, Sumoychular, Shariflilar, Khalfagylar, Ajaflilar, Hanifalilar, Garadolaglar, Emirkhanlilar, Shahverdilar, Zuypapaglar, Uyanlar, Hummatlar, Mammadlilar, Bojukler, Gyllylar, Lalabyglar, Orushdular, Orushdular, Polukler, Lolukler, Lulepapaglar, Palapapagiar, Yekenabilar, Veligojalylar, Gumdolanlar, etc. are the names of families.


The names of families are mainly distinguished from the names of tribes by adding the word "ushagy" (child of): Ashurushagy, Gaytaranushagy, Ejebushagy, Yagsatanushagy, Garaneleushagy, Jivreilushagu, Khuranushagy, Safiguluushagy, etc. The names of a group of tribes and families denote the settlements or places where they live or from where they have come: llkhygoruglar, Khoylular, Hazhalbeyliler, Ashravadlylar, Veligozhalylar, Goyusoyuler, etc. There are the names of tribes and families which denote the profession and occupation - Toychular, Kecheliler...


In 1918 the population of the most part of villages in the Gurdgulu region (now Oktemberyan) was forced by Andronik's cutthroats to leave their native dwelling-places (Janrydy, Gulbeyli, Agjaarakh, Gurdgulu, Tepebashy, Shahriyar, lydeli, Armudlu, Kechili, Mollabeyaz, Saryjaly, etc.). They spread over the world. In 1948 the population of the villages of Kerimarkhy, Kheirbeyli, Hajybairamly, Shavart, etc. was expatriated purposefully from Armenia to Azerbaijan...


In the territory of Armenia within 1900-1920 numerous of villages had been ruined and the names of these villages had been forgotten. In order to study the history of the Azerbaijanese once lived in Armenia it is of great importance to recollect the names of these villages. I should like to cite some of forgotten villages according to appropriate districts: 
Spitak (Hamamly) district - Gursaly, Guzuloren (now Shenovan), Garal, Tapaly, Gotur, Nalbend, Jajur, Parym, Avdybei, Agbulag, Saryhart, etc. 
Kalinino district - llmezli, Gyzyl Shafag, Gyzyldash, Evil, Demirchiler, Saryyar, Soyugbulag, Garagala, Garaisa. The russians and the Azerbaijanians lived together in the villages called Petrovka and Mikhailovka.
Krasny district - Agbulag, Haggykhly, Vurgun, Polad, Jil; 
Amasia district - Agbulag, Okhchuoglu, Agbaba, Demirchi, Renjber, Garagyshlag,
Gollu, Ayrum; 
Noyemberyan district - Lembeli and Korpulu; 
Allahverdi (Alaverdi) district - Ashagy Ayrum and Yukhary Ayrum; 
Stepanavan (Garakilsa) district - Soyugbulag and ilmezli; 
Kirovakan district - Archut, Haidarly, Hallavar, Mollagyshlag, Kilsa, Gozeldere, Almalyg (now Vartana).


It comes out from said that it is necessary to collect, study and publish all place names of Azerbaijani origin in Armenia. It must be included not only the names of settlements, but the names of mountain, ravine, river, summer place, winter place, lake, spring, steppe, town district, tribe, family as well... 









The Turkic Toponyms Of İran


As is known, the half part of Azerbaijan is in the composition of Iran. It is the reason of historical fortune. In the VII century BC there existed ancient states founded by the Azerbaijanese - manna, Media, Atropatene... Who were the ancient inhabitants of this part? Our historians have been discussing some ten years about this question, but they cann't come to common conclusion. And the end of this discussion is not seen. It is said that the Turkic language people have come here after the XI-XII centuries and then the local population (population of the cities of Tabriz, Ardabil, Khoy, Marand, Barda, Ganja as well) adopted the Turkic language (we can't understand why and how thousand of people of cities and villages refuse their own native language?). We can't agree and adopt this opinion. It is a fiction. Y.Yusifov and G.Geibullayev's researches prove our doubts.


There are many Turkic origin toponyms in South Azerbaijan and in other provinces of Iran. These names (settlement names) have found their reflection in 12 volumes work named "A Geographical Dictionary of Iran" and published in Russian. There are some works delt with this question in Russian. One of them is V.I.Savina's work named "A Dictionary of Geographical Terms and Other Words that form the Toponyms of Iran" (?., 1971). Though the dictionary does not cover all geographical names of Iran, one can find many Turkic origin terms there. We try to share our consideration with  readers just on the basis of this work.


The Azerbaijani toponyms are spread not only in the territory of South Azerbaijan (West Azerbaijan, Central Azerbaijan and East Azerbaijan ostans), but in the other territoryes of Iran. Naturally, there are crossed (hybrid) toponyms too. The Azerbaijan and Persian languages have been existing side by side for ages. 


According to its origin the word "abad" means a settlement, a place where the people inhabit, in short, a settlement with good amenities. As is known, the word "abad" is used not only in the toponymies of Iran and Azerbaijan, but at the same time in the Eastern countries. As to researchers' opinion, the root of the word "abad" is of Persian origin. "Ab" means "water". There are many village names which have been created by adding the word "abad" in the territory of South Azerbaijan (as it is in North).


Special places in open air where sheep are kept are called "agyl", "agul" (sheep-pen) in Iran too. Evidently, the names of settlements as Dashagyl, Gamyshagyl, Gazanagyl, Duzagyl (Azerbaijan) and Gyzylagyl (Khorasan) have been created just on the bases of agyls (sheep-pens).


The word of "agaj" observed in toponyms has two meanings: first, tree; second, unit of measures of lenght. The names of villages as Ikiagaj, Altyagaj, etc. in Iran denote just the distance. But Agajari or Agajeri are related to the name of tribe Agajeris [Ağaçeri Turks, Agathyrsos in Heredot-SB] once lived in Iran (V.l.Savina, 1971, p.20). There is a mountain called Agajaridag in Mountainous Garabag.


Saline lands, lakes, etc. are formed in the territories with dry climate. The words "ajy" (bitter)[acı-SB], "shor", "shur", "shore" (salty), "duz" (salt)[tuz-SB] take part in formation of toponyms made in such territories. Ajychay, Ajydere, Ajysu, etc. hydronyms have been formed on the basis of the word "ajy" in Iran. The toponyms as Shurtepe, Shorbulag, Duzechishur, Shurgol, Shurja, Shurestan, Tuzlugol, Tuzlar and Tuzlu are widely spread in South Azerbaijan.


Thr toponyms created by the help of the word "ag" (white)[ak-SB] are very characteristic for the Turkic toponymy of Iran. There are many place names made adding to the word "ag" the next words: "gol" (lake) [göl-SB], "chay" (river)[çay-SB], "chayly" (hollow), "kend" (village)[kent-SB], "kehriz" (underground water line), "tepe" (hill), "dash" (stone) [daş-taş-SB], "bend" (dam), "gum" (sand)[kum-SB], "sham" (pine)[çam-SB], "mazar" (grave)[mezar-SB].  Besides that there are also place names as Agjagala, Agjamesjid there. The toponyms of Aladan, Alagaya, Alacheshma, Alagol have been created by the help of the word "ala" (particoloured)[ala-al=red-SB].


The word "sary" (yellow)[sarı-SB] denoting the colour takes part in formation of the toponyms of Sarydash mountain, Sarysu river, Sariyer, Sarydash, etc.


The toponyms of Gyrmyzygol, Gyrmyzy Khalifani (South Azerbaijan) have been formed on the basis of word denoting the red colour. Gyrmyzy (red)[kırmız-SB] is an ethnonym as well. In the village of Boyuk Chobankere, Armenia there was a man named Gyrmyzy Huseyn. There was also a village called Gyrmyzyly in Armenia.


As a rule, almost all colour denoting words take part in formation of place names in South Azerbaijan. The number of toponyms formed by the help of the word "gara" (black)[kara-SB] in Iran is more than 25. The following words as "dag" (mountain)[tau-tay-dağ-SB], "bulag" (spring), "dash" (stone), "bag" (garden)[bağ-SB], "ilan" (snake)[yılan-SB], "agyl" (mind)[akıl-SB], "tepe" (hill), "batlag" (bog), "chay" (river), "derbend" (narrow passage), "dere" (ravine), "gazan" (pot)[kazan-SB], "agaj" (tree)[ağaç-SB], etc. join to the word "gara" and form different toponyms. But there are original toponyms like Ganygara, Gazangara. These names need to be explained.


The ethnotoponyms are of great importance among the toponyms of South Azerbaijan. The toponyms formed on the bases of ethnonyms denote the settlement places of tribes that took part in formation of ethnogenesis of the Azerbaijan nation.


In the Turkic language nations the "oba" is considered a temporal, seasonal settlement built of felt marquees by cattle-breeders. An oba is a nomadic place which pertains to a certain tribe, family. The settlements named Agjaoba, Obabulagy, Uzunoba, etc. in South Azerbaijan; lliatoba in Gilan; Obaeta in Goran have been founded just on the bases of "obas".


As to Azerbaijanese once were fire worshippers many place related to the word "atesh" (fire)[ateş-SB] have been created in Azerbaijan. Therefore, there are toponyms called Ateshan, Ateahkuk - in Central Iran; Ateshbek, Ateshkhosrov - in Azerbaijan; Sangatesh - in Khorasan. We think, the history of fireworship in the territory of Azerbaijan is as old as sun-worship. Who knows, maybe, when people understood that the life on the Earth depends on the sun rays then they began to value the flame, heat of the fire. Many nations worshipped the fire. But for some reason the Azerbaijanese have considered the fire as the god and it became a form of religion. A man who considered the sun, the fire a god, an initial beginning he could not bow before the fire. The deep traces of fire- worship are reserved in Azerbaijan even nowdays.


In Iran the magmatic volcanoes are called "Ateshfeshan" or "Kukhe-Ateshfeshan" in the Persian language. The Azerbaijanese call the volcano as "Yanardag" (Burning mountain)[yanardağ-SB].  To swear the fire goes back to the ancient times in Azerbaijan as well. It shows that the fire is considered as sacred as the sun.


One of the Turkic language tribes in Iran is the Afshars. There are the ethnonyms called Ovshar in Agjabedi district, North Azerbaijan, Avsharlar in Vedi district (Ararat), Armenia, Efshar and Efsharjik in South Azerbaijan. Generally, there are more than 12 place names related to the ethnonym of Efshar (Efsheran, Efsharly, Siakhefshar, Chemenefsharlar, etc.) in Iran. We support some researchers' opinion that the toponym "Absheron" has been also derived from the ethnonym of "Efsharan" (Baharly, 1920).


As the historians write, this tribe has come to Fore-Asia in the XI-XII centuries with the Seljuk Oghuzes. Mahmud Gashgari (in the X century) calls the names of 24 tribes of the Oghuzes. Some of them are: Avshar, Bayat, Bayandur, Yive, Jabni, Salur... These tribes have taken part in our ethnogenesis after the XI-XII centuries. A genre of folklore as "Bayaty", the tunes of music as "Bayati-Gajar", "Kurd Ovshary" are related just to the tribes of Bayat and Avshar (Efshar).


One of the Seljuk-Oghuz tribes settled in Azerbaijan, including South Azerbaijan has been the Alpouts. There are the toponyms named Altavut in South Azerbaijan, Alfavut in Central Iran, Alpout in Kurdish Iran.


The word "okh" has two meanings in the Turkic languages: "arrow" and the name of a tribe. The masters who make "okh" (arrow)[ok-SB] and those who fought with "okh" (arrow) have been called "okhchu" [okçu-SB]. Then the word "okhchu" was as an ethnonym and widely spread in the places where the Turkic language peoples lived. Probably, in South Azerbaijan the toponyms called Okhchu, Okhchular, Okhsar are just the traces of Okhchu tribe.


The Turkic tribe of Bayan is also known. In the past one tribe was called Bayan among the Uigurs. Some ethnotoponyms (Bayanchol, Baylanlyja, Bayanly) in South Azerbaijan have been formed in connection with the Bayans. It is interesting that there are about 12 geographical names related to Bayan in Iran (Bayandere, Derebayan, Chenarbayan, etc.).


The next geographical names - Bayatly, Gyzyltepebayat, Gyshbagbayat, etc. may be given as example for the toponyms formed in connection with the Turkic tribe of Bayat. It must be taken into consideration that there are toponyms named Tikanly, Dikanly [dikenli-SB], Tukantepe, Tikanlyja, Garatikan [karadiken-SB], etc. in Iran. It may be considered that these toponyms are from the word "tikan" (thorn)[diken-SB] observed in our language.


It cann't be true. There are villages called Ashagy [aşağı-SB] and Yukhary [yukarı-SB] Tikanly in North Azerbaijan too. In reality, Tikan is the name of a tribe of Gypchag origin [Kipchak-Kıpçak Turks-SB]. There is a tribe called Tukan even now in Uzbekistan.


Turk - Tork is the combining, common name given to the Turkic nations. The place names created on the basis of the word Turk are spread within more than 12 provinces of Iran. There are toponyms called Torkfre, Torkviran, Torkedek, Gyzgapantork in Iranian Azerbaijan. Besides that, about 30 additional toponyms (Torkul, Torkan, Noutork, Torkani, etc.) have been created on the basis of the topoformant "turk" ("tork") in Iran. The name of the village Turkan situated in Absheron, undoubtedly, is of from this type and is the name given by the Persian people to the place where the Turkic language people lived.


There are 14 geographical names (Uzantorkman, Tepetorkman, Kehrizterekeme, etc.) formed on the basis of the ethnonyms of Torkeman, Torkman, plural form - Terakeme (Turkmens)[Türkmen/Turkmen=I am Turk-SB] in Iran. Turmen was the name of one of the existing tribes among the Gyzylbash tribes [Kızılbaş = Red Head Turks-SB] of the Sefevids in the XV century. It proves once more that the Turkic language nations have widely settled in the territory of Iran.


The Gashgays [Kashkay Turks/Kaşkay-SB], being a Turkic origin ethnographic group in Iran, consist of a number of tribes. One of them is named Salar. There are the toponyms called Firuzsalat (South Azerbaijan), Efessalar, Salarkia (Center Iran), Salarabad, Salarm, Kelatesalar (Khorasan), Deksalar (Kerman) in Iran. The Salars live in Altay too. An outstanding scientist Sara Ashurbeyli has determined that the word "aran" (lowlying land) has reserved the meanings of "winter place", "flat country" nowdays as well.


One of the ethnoses taken part in ethnogenesis of the Azerbaijan nation, including the Azerbaijanese who lived in Armenia is the Garagoyunese. Armenia was subordinated to the state of the Azerbaijani Garagoyunese. They were a ruler on a vast territory - Iran, Irag and Transcaicasia within 1410-1468 (V.I.Savina, 1971, p.102). The toponyms of Garagoyunlu [Qaraqoyunlu / Karakoyunlu = Black Sheep Turkomans-SB] have been reserved in Azerbaijan and Khorasan. The villages called Garagoyunlu were observed in Armenia too. Generally, there were 6 villages named Garagoyunlu in the Caucasus in the XIX century. 


In the Turkic languages there are some toponyms formed on the basis of the word "gazan" [kazan-SB] in Iran. They are: Kazanabad, Gazanagylly, Gazankend, Gazan, Gazanser in South Azerbaijan; Gazangara in Kurdustan; Chalegazan and Gazanchy in Central Iran. Gazan has been the name of a tribe in the acient Bulgaria (G.A.Geibullayev, 1986). There are a lot of toponyms related to this ethnonym in Bulgaria, Ukraine, Tataria (the ancient city Kazan), North Caucasus, along the Volga and  Transcaucasus. V.l.Savina mistakenly relates the toponyms of Gazan found in Iran with our word "gazan" (pot, a vessel used for cooking meals). 


Truly, there are toponyms where the word gazan expresses the form of geographical object. Gazandag, Gazangol, Gazanbulag and other toponyms may be given as example. What relation may there be between the villages of Gazanchy and the vessel named gazan? (It is to be said that in the old Turkic language this vessel was not named "gazan", but "gazgan". In the course of time it has obtained the form of gazan and it was seemed that the ethnonym Kazan and the word gazan were used in the same meaning). If we want to speak about the origin of this ancient ethnonym, as to us, like the ethnonyms of Gazakh, Khazar, Kaspi, etc. the ethnonym "kas" constitutes the base of this word.


The Gajars are from the Turkic tribes. It is supposed that the Mongolians have been in Iran as well. 8 geographical names (Gajrabad, Dekhkodjar, etc.) are related with this ethnonym in Iran. In North Azerbaijan the Gajars are the forefathers of Ziyadoglu, Javad khan who founded the basis of the khanate of Ganja. They have lived in Armenia as well. The Gazakhs ara the Turkic tribes. There are the toponyms of Gazakhly and Gazagy in Iran related to their names. The city Gazakh situated in North Azerbaijan dates from the VII cyntury in Arabic sources. The Kengerlis are also mentioned in these sources. There are the "Kengerli Mountains" in Gugasyan district, Armenia. We consider that there was a territory called "land of Kenger" in adjoining region of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia. In order to efface from memory the traces of Kengerlis the Armenians have abolished this toponym.


It is worthy to know that there are Turkic (Azerbaijan) origin toponyms named Garagoz [Karagoz (göz)-Black eyed-SB] and Alagoz [Red eyed-SB] in Iran. It may be used as a key for being determined the toponym Alagoz (it is called as Eleyez by the Azerbaijanese) written as Aragats in the ancient Armenian source (in the work of Moses Khorenski, the V century). There were tens of toponyms called Alagoz and Alagozlu in the works dated from the previous century in Azerbaijan and Armenia. In short, this toponym is waiting for its researchers. Who knows, maybe, "alagoz" was the name of one of the Turkic origin tribes among the Azerbaijanese. It is to be mentioned that the Albanians are depicted as tall, grey-eyed nation by the most part of ancient authors.


In Iran, including South Azerbaijan there are toponyms derived from the Turkic origin ethnonyms as Gypchag, Gyrkhlar, Gylynjly, Chemenli, Muganly, Rumly, Sekkizler, lydyr, Tatar, Tekeli, Sarygash, Khalaj, Cheleb, Chyragly, llkhychy, Chubuglu, Shahseven, Garabatlyg, Gullar, Kolanly, llhanilar, Azadly,  Yashylbash, Gonjali, Chygatay, etc. 


These toponyms express the names of Turkic tribes which constitute the origin of the Azerbaijanese. The same names are also observed in Armenia and North Azerbaijan. It shows once more that in everywhere - in South and North Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia and Daghestan the Azerbaijanese are the united living organism. The root is common, the origin is common.


Pseudo-historians like Zori Balayan call us newly-come Turk - Tatar and as to them, it dates from the Middle Ages. Their basic aim is to capture new lands, to built "great Armenia". A vast territory - South and North Azerbaijan, including the appropriate zones of Armenia, Georgia must be considered by our historians and linguists as a single whole area where the Azerbaijanese have been formed. An opinion that the Azerbaijanians have appeared in this region only in the Middle Ages is completely false. Unfortunately, up to present we could not elucidate the ancient history of our nation. The homeless Armenians also consider us "yesterday's child”. As to them, even a wellknown poet Nizami is not an Azerbaijani.


There are some geographical names (Eloglu, Dinoglu, Ogulbey, Deveoglu, Sufioglu) related to the word "ogul" (son, child) in South Azerbaijan. It is obvious that the word "ogul" in these toponyms does not express its direct meaning, the boy child of the father, but it denotes a certain "family", "clan", "genesis". We have reminded above that the khans who founded the khanate of Ganja were named "Ziyadoglular". There are villages called Eloglu (Agdash) in North Azerbaijan.


GAGeibullayev has rightiy noted that it is the mispresented form of the name of Yiveogullar. It means "those who are from the Yive tribe". The name of this tribe has been reserved in the name of the village Juva in Armenia. Really, the word "ogul" (son, child) is a wonderful word. It sounds proudly: "el oglu" (son of the people), "vatan oglu" (son of the motherland). 


Horses have been used as a riding and load carrying means for ages. As to me, it is impossible to find other domestic animals that have played so huge role in the history of Turkic nations as horse, dog, deer, camel. Probably, the readers know that as long ago, as in the IV century BC the king of Alban made a present of two horses to Alexander the Great. The herd was considered a valuable wealth for our people in the past, because our ancestors used to fight against the enemies on horses. The existance of villages named Ilkhychy in both sides of Azerbaijan proves it. The history keeps in minds the names of a number of horses: Gyrat, Durat, Bozat, Duldulat, etc.


There are the toponyms called Ilanly, Ilankosh, Ilangara in South Azerbaijan. Of course, the word "ilan" (snake) [yılan-SB] observed in these toponyms is not related with the snake, though the snake was worshipped in the past. There is a mountain called llandag in Nakhichevan. At the same time, "ilan" is the name of one of the Turkic tribes as well.


A group of toponyms found in South Azerbaijan is related with the names of animal: Jeiranbulagy, Jeiranderek, Jeyranlar, Develi, Devechi, Agdeveli, Tulkutepesi, Garatulku, Dovshanbulagy, Dovshantepe, Dovshanly, etc. There are the names that express our animal world. As to V.I.Savina, the toponyms Shegalek and Shagaly met in Iran denote the name of animal of "chaggal" (jackal); but we consider this opinion is absolutely baseless. Such kind of explanation cann't be satisfied us, because the Azerbaijanese would be never named their villages Chaggally or Chaggalan. In reality, these toponym must be related with the name of the ancient Sacks (real name - "shaga", "shaka"). The settling of the Sacks (shaks, i.e. those who are from Sheki) in these places dates from the VII century BC. Information about this matter is given in I.M.Dyakonov, I .Aliyev's works. 


There was a village named Sheki in Sisyan district, Armenia. The name of Sheki fortress is noted in connection with the revolt headed by Babek and taken place in the VIII century. A well-known historian Z.Bunyadov has written much about this event. So, as in Armenia and North Azerbaijan the Shakas (Sacks) are our ancestors in South Azerbaijan as well. As regards the language of the Sacks we do not say anything. But anyhow we cann't agree that the ancestors of those who are from Sheki are Iranian language.


There are some toponyms related to the names of fruits (Almaly. Armudagajly, Tutagajy, Tutchal, Anjirli, etc.) in South Azerbaijan. They are phytotoponyms. The mulberry-tree is a fruit-tree and at the same time was the only tree for the development of silkworn breeding.


The silkworn breeding was one of the oldest professions of our forefathers. It is wonderful that the people of Azerbaijan take an especial interest in the Sun, sunlight. They built their villages on the south sides of places, the doors of their houses are to be opened to the Sun side. As a rule, villages, houses are not built on the north side. As a result, a number of toponyms as Agguney, Saryguney, Gyzylguney, etc. have been created in South Azerbaijan. There are many geographical names in North Azerbaijan related to the word "guney" (south): Guneydash, Guneymehle, etc...


A number of toponyms related to the climate are found in South Azerbaijan. The toponyms as Yelderesi, Yeldeyirmani, Yelsuyu, Yelliderek, Yellibulag have been formed in the places where a natural process - "yel" (wind) is often observed. The place  names connected with the word "yel" are divided into two groups: one group is related with the wind and another group denotes the illness of rheumatism (for example: Yelsuyu, Yellibulag).


The word "demir" (iron) is known to the Turks from the old times. The discovery of this metal, as is known, has opened a new era in the development of human history. It laid the foundation of the Demir (Iron) Age. Probably, the readers are aware of F.Engels' words about this matter. The ancient Turkic personal names as Temir (Teymur), Demit, Temur have been taken from the name of this metal. Who does not know the names of noted conquerors of Chingiz khan (his real name was Temuchin, i.e. Temurchin - "like iron") and Teimurleng (Teimur the Lame)? As a result, a profession called demirchi (smith) has appeared in the world of Turkic nations; at the same time, the profession of demirchi (smith) was highly thought of by people even it become the name of tribe, kin, family. There are villages Demirchiler in both sides of Azerbaijan. 


The place names as Uchdash, Agdash, Dashtepe, Dashalty, Dashgala, Dashbulag, Dashkesan, Dashkhana, Dashatan, etc. have been created on the basis of the word "dash" (stone) in Iran. The parallels of these geographical names are met in North Azerbaijan as well.


The geographical terms concerned to Turkic toponyms in Iran - South Azerbaijan are variegated: "abad", "aul", "ara", "bag", "bair", "boluk", "gala", "gyshlag", "eyvan", "ev", "el", "yaylag", "yurd", "yer", "kend", "koch", "kenar", "mehelle", "oymag", "otag", "oba" ("ova"), "ojag", "ulus", "ordu", "olke", "sanjag", "tukme", "torpag", "khane", "khain", "bulag", "hasar", etc. The most of them are the Turkic words, though some of them (abad, gala, hasar, khane, khain) are of Persian and Arabic origin, they sound just as Azerbaijan words in toponyms. Because all these toponyms have been created by the Azerbaijanese.


In connection with this matter I should like to say some words about the mistaken classification made in our toponymy. Mostly, our researchers divide the toponyms into Persian, Arabic, etc. groups according to language belongings of the words met in appropriated toponyms. We think, it is mistaken. For example, the word "abad" is of Persian origin, but toponyms (Jalilabad, Samedabad, Ordubad, etc.) are of Azerbaijan toponyms. The same words may be said about the toponyms related with the words of "gala", "dehne". Professor Agamusa Akhundov writes that the toponyms made of Persian-Arabic words are the names just of Azerbaijan origin. We share his opinion (of course, with the exception of Iranian language toponyms made on the bases of languages of the Tats and Talyshes in the places where they live compactly). 


The word "bayir" in the ancient Turkic language means "hill", "mountain ridge".  In North Azerbaijan this word is mentioned even in the work of Mahmud Gashgari. There are wcrds related with the word "bayir" in Iran as well. There are different opinions about the origin of the word "gala" (fortress). Some say it is Persian, others consider Arabic. From remote past it entered our language and many toponyms have been formed with the component of "gala". There are more than 30 toponyms related with the word "gala" in Iran.


The word "yaylag" characteristic for cattle-breeders means nomads' camp or summer camp (V.l.Savina, 1971, p.275). It is also typical for the names of some villages (Yaylag Tehmasib, Tekyaylag, Goyjeyaylag, etc.) in Iran. A place where cattle-breeders keep their catties is called "gyshlag" (winter place). The word "gyshlag" is pronounced as "keshlak" in Persian. There is an Azerbaijanian village named Kishle in Iran. At first sight it is seemed that this toponym is from the word "gyshlag". In reality, it is not so. There is also a village named Keshle in Absheron, North Azerbaijan. But this name has passed into passive topofund. It is reserved only in the name of one railroad station.


At present the word "otag (room) is used in the sense of "flat" in our language. In remote past its initial meaning was "marquee", "tent". The word "otag" expresses just this meaning in "Dede Gorgud". There are toponym,s in South Azerbaijan called Agotag, Otagly, Otagsaray where the word "otag" keeps its initial meaning. The word "saray" observed in the last toponym means in the Persian language "home", "dwelling place", "estate", "karvansaray" (coach inn), etc. (V.l.Savina, 1971, p.191). But there is a difference between the Persian word of "saray" (for example, second component of the word "karvansaray") and the name of village of Saray. There is only apparent likeness. Because, Saray is the name of a Turkic tribe who came to Azerbaijan in the XIII century with the Mongolians. This toponym has been explained for the first time by A.Huseynzade.


The word "yatag" (sheep-fold) related to the stock-breeding means a place used for keeping the stock, temporary dwelling-place used in winter, a place where "domestic animals are kept". This word is met in the toponyms as Gayayatag, Gyzylyatag, etc. The word "ojag" pertaining to Turkic nations is polysemantic. Ojag is the symbol of every dwelling-place; it is a place where the fire is burnt. Ojag is a family. But this word has more broad meaning in our language; in this case it denotes the place where kin, tribe settle. Such ojags (settlements) sometimes carry the name of tribe and person. 


At the same time, ojag is considered a holy place by Turkic peoples. These are the place names called Ojaggalazlar, Ojagkend, Saryojag in South Azerbaijan, Ojag, Abdallakhabadojag in Central Iran, Dehneojag and Shahojag in Khorasan. By the way, it is to be said that this old Turkic word (in the form of "ojag") has passed into the Russian and Armenian languages too. Armenian Zori Balayan in his work named "Ojag" (1984) shows that the Azerbaijanese land is Armenian ojag. It is the the top of Impudence. It is beyond of one's understanding that he wants eo name the Azerbaijan land his own, i.e. Armenian ojag by the help of our word. It is impossible to find the second example of this kind in the world. His hands have been stained with the bloods of thousands of innocent men and he can clean it never.


The Turkic - Mongolian origin word "oymag" means family, kin, kin's branch, children, related group, people. There are the villages called Yeddioymag in North Azerbaijan (Masally district) and Jeharoymag in Iran (V.I.Savina, 1971, p.164).


The word "ordu", as it is said above, in Turkic languages means "camp", "khan's headquarter", "khan's marquee". This word has kept its mentioned meaning in the toponym of Ordugakhe-Movekket (military camp) observed in Iran. It is to be noted that there are terms that express the smallest elements of landscape of the territory. As the Turks were mainly cattle-breeder they spend the most part of their days in open air walking through high mountains and dry steppes. For this reason they were able to create many interesting terms which express successfully the different relief forms.


Many terms related to the different relief forms have been created in Turkic languages in Iran. Some toponyms concerned to big relief forms in South Azerbaijan are: "dag" (mountain) - Garadag, Serabdag; "dash" (stone) - Goydash, Uchdash, Dashatan; "dere" (ravine) - Agdere, Garadere, Gyzyldere, etc.


There is a toponym (Batlage-Shurezar) formed on the basis of the Turkic word "batlag" ("batyg", "batdag" - marsh) in Iran. It is worthy to know that historian Shiabeddin Mohammed en-Nesevi, dated from the XIII century while describing the war carried out by Sultan Jelaleddin with the Mongolians in the territory of Azerbaijan, writes about a pool called Bashdag in the border of Azerbaijan and Georgia. Z.Bunyadov, who has translated this work into Russian, speaks about this name in one of his commentaries. A number of place names found in Iran, including South Azerbaijan are similar with the names observed in the territory of Azerbaijan. It proves itself in oronymic, phytonymic, zoonymic and hydronymic toponyms derived from both the ethnotoponyms as well as the geographical terms. It shows, first of all, the sameness of the origin and language in both sides of Azerbaijan at the time  when these toponyms were formed. 


As we think, it is our researchers' fault that they have not studied the toponymy of South Azerbaijan till now. At least, we are able to collect the macrotoponyms of South Azerbaijan on the bases of geographical works and dictionaries (for example, dictionaries compiled by Mesud Keyhan, Ali Razmara) written in the Persian language. V.I.Savina has made many mistakes in explanation of Turkic origin toponyms observed in Iran. Because she does not know the Turkic (Azerbaijan) language. For example, she relates the toponym "Bum" observed there with the Persian word "bum" which means "country", "land", "place", "territory". Whereas, beginning from Altay in all the territories of Turkic countries the words "Bum", "Bom" are widely spread. "Bum" means "empty", "narrow ravine" and the village Bum in Gabala district is situated just in a such similar geographical conditions.


Of course, we cann't deny the presence of Persian origin words in a number of our toponyms. Thousand years along the Azerbaijan language lives side by side with the Persian language. Prominent Azerbaijan poets as Nizami, Khagani, Mujiraddin Badalkhani have written and created in the Persian language. As a result, many Persian words have been adopted and used in toponymic creation. For example, the following Persian words as "gah" (land, place), "dar" (keeping), "zar" (land, place, "khana" (home, residence), etc. are used not only in formation of common Azerbaijan words (seirangah, duzengah, anbardar, khazinadar, lalezar, chaykhana, etc.), but at the same time they have found their expression in a number of toponyms (Namazgah, Badamdar, Lalezar, Kurdekhana, etc). The word "dize" concerned to the Persian language (in the modern Persian language "dezh" - "fortress") is widely used in our toponyms (mainly in the territory of Nakhichevan).


There are the toponyms called Zengabad, Zengi, Zengilan, Zengibasar, etc. in South Azerbaijan. Similar named toponyms as Zengi river, Zengibasar are met in Armenia, and Zengilan in North Azerbaijan. The name of the toponym Zengilan situated in North is mentioned for the first time in the work of "History" written by Kirakos Ganzakets (in the XIV century). They are the geographical names which have very interesting origins. Some people consider that these toponyms have been derived from the ethnonym "zenji" (Ethiopian). But it is also known that one of the Kurdish tribes is called "zengi" in Iran. The Azerbaijanese are in touch with the Kurds from remote past. The orientalists as I.M.Dyakonov and V.F.Minorski have also noted it...


We have spoken above about the toponyms related to the ethnonym "mug" in Western Siberia. There are tens of geographical names concerned to the ethnonym Mog, Mug in Iran. Generally, there are more than 25 place names related to the word "mog", "mogan" (Moganen, Mogandek, Bemmogan, Siazmogan, Mogriz, Mogestan, etc.) in Iran. As I think, it is very hard to find another mysterious ethnonym of this kind like the ethnonym "mag", "mug" in our history. Many questions of our history will be remained dark until we do not clarify the ethnic belonging of those who bear the name of "Mag", "Mug". While studying the ethnic origin of this ancient tribe the Herodot's (in the V century BC) opinion must be taken into consideration. He denotes that there was an alliance between the Persians and the Midianians. In what language did the Midianians speak? It will be key answer for being determined the ethnic origin of the tribe Mag.


The word "pir" in Persian means a sage old man, a leader of religious community, a person who lays the foundation of religious order, sacred (V.I.Savina, p.172) (our late friend Z.I.Yampolski did not consider that the word "pir" is of Persian origin). There are about 36 settlements (Pirgah, Pireyir, Pirsaat, Pirbeyli, etc.) concerned to the word "pir" in South Azerbaijan. Pir is considered the holy places in Azerbaijan. The pirs are divided into two places: first graves of authorities, sheikhs, religious and holy persons; second, ancient temples, mountains, rocks, etc. I am to note that during the Soviet power the most of pirs (holy places) were ruined and burnt. We shall feel the pain of this damage for a long time. You know, the pirs are the memory of our past and we are obliged to give life and restore them.


The words "sel" and "selab" are of Arabic and Persian origin. According to V.I.Savina, a natural phenomenon taken place in mountain rivers during the heavy rains is expressed by the word "sel" in Iran. She explains it as flood. The word "selab" is mainly used in formation of microtoponyms. The words "sel" and "selab" are not used in the names of settlements. Because, village, settlement, nomad's camp were not built in a place where a flash flood took place. Probably, the readers know that even graveyards are mainly laid on hilly places, but not in a place where flood is occured. But there are the village names called Serab in Iran and North Azerbaijan.


The word "ab" observed in these toponyms means "water" in Persian. The first component of these words "ser" means "on", "at". Sometimes the spring is called as "serab" ("at the spring", i.e. a place where a spring comes out, takes its beginning) in our language. The toponym Serab (Sarov in North Azerbaijan) means just on the water (spring). As is known, before laying the foundation of settlement our forefathers have taken first of all care for the water source and then began to built their settlements on or near the sprigs, rivers... According to researchers, the toponym Sarov found in North have been brought by the families who left the Serab village located in South Azerbaijan.


The word "sur" in Arabian means wall of fortress, protecting barrier of a fortress, tower, fortress (V.I.Savina, p.20). We suppose that this word takes part in the name of settlement called Surakhany (Absheron). But the village names called Surra and met in both sides of Azerbaijan bear quite another meaning. The toponyms of Surra are from the name of tribe of Surla concerned to the Gyzylbashs (XV century). This has been proved by G.A.Geibullayev. The tribes as Gorus, Zengane and Surla supported with their own military forces the rulers of the Sefevids and for this reason they were made a present of lands in Shirvan; some families of these tribes migrated and settled in mentioned lands.


The word "tell" or "tel" in Arabian means "hill", Hillock", "small mountain". There are many names related to this term in South. A village name of Televar (Yardymly district) in North is of this kind. A Persian origin word expressing the meanings of narrow place, narrow passage and deep ravine in the mountains is observed in South. The next place names as Tengi ravine and Tengealty (Guba district, Rustave village), Tenkerud river (Talysh mountains), Tengetik (Lerik), Tengerud (Astara) are spread in the regions where the Tats and Talyshs live compactly.


The Turkic language tribes who lived across the river Amu Darya were called the Tur and the territory where they settled Turan by the Iranians (Aryans) in very remote past. The historians (including European and Russian historians) consider just the Aryans (ancient ancestors of the Persians, the Tajiks, Pamir nations) those who bear the "Tur" ethnonym as well. It is difficult to understand: then why are the Aryans opposed to the Turs (Turanians) in Persian eposes and in Firdovisi's "Shahname" written on the basis of these ethnoses? 


Some researchers relate this opposition with the differences of life manners, economic activities; they say, those who live across the river Amu Darya are the nomadic Aryans, but those who are on this side are the settled Aryans. It is a very strange logic. A nation who spoke in common language in the VII century BC is divided into two places, they kill each other, and the wars carried out between the Iranians and the Turanians for a long time find its expression in the work called "Shahname". All these take place only because that half of them is of nomadic and another one - settled. It is not  serious. It is a childish delusion. Whereas, the word "Turk" is just from the ethnonym "Tur". 


Let us leave it aside, but what can we say about a number of Turanian villages in South Azerbaijan the population of which speak in Azerbaijan? Why have these Aryans - Turs who are among the Persians many thousand years become Turkified? There are eight toponyms (Turane, Turani, Turan, Turanposht, Turankele, etc.) formed on the basis of the word "Turan" in Iran. We think, the specialists in Persian philology cann't or do not want to explain the origin of our nation in demanded level... Maybe, a reader wants to explain the toponym Turyanchay on the basis of the ethnonym "turan". But it would be mistaken. The name Turyanchay is from the Mongolian word "turgen" which means "rapidly", "quickly" (rapid running river). It is worthy to know, historian Rashid ad-Din (in the XIV century) writes that this river was firstly called Kererud which means "Rapidriver" in the Persian language.


There are many toponyms denoting the ethnonym Khazar in Iran and South Azerbaijan and the most of them are the names of settlements. It is known that one part of the Khazars was migrated from North to South Azerbaijan by Khosrov Anushiravan (VI century). But V.I.Savina mistakenly relates some of them with the Arabian word "hazr" - "sir", "pir" and others with the name of the prophet Khyzyr. A settlement situated not far from Medina city, Saudi Arabia was named Kheibar in the VII century. A lot of families was migrated to Azerbaijan. Now there are some toponyms called Kheibar in South Azerbaijan. The second component of the name of Zarat Kheibari (a village in Shamakhy district) found in North is just of Kheibar.


The word "khosh" takes an active part in formation of some toponyms in Iran and South Azerbaijan. V.I.Savina again mistakenly relates this word with the Persian word "Khosh" (pleasant). In reality, "khosh", "gosh" is an ancient Turkic origin word (takes part in the word "goshun) and means nomads, cattle-breeders, camp, etc. The place names as Khoshkeshin, Khoshchobanly, Keve-Gutan, Keshden, Keshtaz (Koshtaz) in North Azerbaijan, Khoshmanzil, etc. in Daghestan are from this word. 


We tried in a popular form to give information about the Turkic (Azerbaijan) origin toponyms distributed in Iran and South Azerbaijan. From here it comes out that the Turkic origin ethnonyms and geographical terms are similar not only in North Azerbaijan and in other countries where the Turkic nations live, but at the same time some Persian and Arabian words are equally used in formation of toponyms in this vast territory. What does it mean? It means that all these toponyms have been formed in mentioned territory on the lexical basis of a common language. At the end I want to express my  one desire. The researchers from North Azerbaijan are to study the toponymy of our brothers who live in South Azerbaijan. It is our urgent and sacred duty and we must hurry for this matter. 




Turkic Toponyms of Eurasia  / e-book
BUDAG BUDAGOV , 1997
The geographical toponyms preserved in the immense territories of Turkic nations are considered in this work. The author speaks about the parallels, twins of Azerbaijani toponyms distributed in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Altay, the Ural, Western Siberia, Armenia, Iran, Turkey, the Crimea, Chinese Turkistan, etc. Besides, the geographical names concerned to other Turkic language nations are elucidated in this book.





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İran:  SialkTepe, Haft Tepe, Hisar Tepe, Godin Tepe, Yahya Tepe....
Tepe is Turkish of Etymology; little mountain, hill










an other article:
Shamsiddin Sirojiddin ogly Kamoliddin
Tashkent, Shark, 2006



"The aim of this chapter is to point to the endless list of the Türkic toponyms we find not only in Europe, but all over the world. This indicates that apparently at some time the humanity didn't speak any other language but Türkic."



"Historically, the Armenians of today cannot be traced further back 
than about 6th century BC."
Parthia-George Rawlinson