10 Mayıs 2014 Cumartesi




"This story may be closed with the Arab. Strictly speakingi this breed is outside the limtis originally intended, because its history begins in the late Middle Ages, but this is one of the most ancient and noble breeds that have survived and it would be unfair not to mention it.

" The Arabs started breeding horses rather late in Mahomet's time they still had a very small number of them. The Arab of course belongs to the oriental, hot-blooded group, but its real fatherland is NOT ARABIA but TURKESTAN, and the race was bred an fixed in its present character in Egypt, by people who had come from CENTRAL ASIA.

The TURKISH ORIGIN of this breed is also attested by its name : The Arabic word to designate any horse in general is "faras" or "husan", but a horse of noble blood is called with a TURKISH WORD "ATIK".

"The history of the Arab was reconstructed by Jankovich as follows. Breeding of noble horses on a large scale was started in Egypt by a man of TURKISH ORIGIN, Sultan El Nasser El-Mansour, who reigned for fifty years, from 1291 to 1341.

he spent enormous sums purchasing horses of noble breeds, breeding them, organising races and all sorts of games. His love did not end with horses; he liked camels (dromedaries) as well, particularly racing breeds. At the time of his death his stables numbered 4.500 horses and 5.000 camels.

El Nasser strove to extend love for horses among his subjects and took particular care in breeding, but discarded the horses from Barka, favoured by his father, and imported horses that were called ARABS.

The name however was inaccurate, owing to a rather free use of geographical terms in the chronicles of this time: because the horses imported by El Nasser were bred in Syria by two NOMADİC TRİBES, the Beni Fadl and the Muhanna, who had come to he Middle East from TURKESTAN about three centuries earlier."

"Being primarily interested in breeding problems , El Nasser established reuglar stud books. They are now extremely interesting documents as they give evidence that the most valued arab strains, the Baya, the Siglawi, the Hamdani, The Habdan, all also collectively called Kehailan, descend from El Nasser's studs."


Turk horses imported into Britain are often incorrectly described as ARABS. The horse breeds of the OTTOMAN Empire listed below represent only some of the major breeds of horse found in TURKEY of which there still are (although in everdecreasing numbers) a great many subbreeds, and subdivisions.

The OTTOMAN Empire produced fabulous horses of great variety, of which Arabs formed one part, but the vast majority of military horses used by the OTTOMAN TURKS were of TURKIK ORIGIN.

They were distinguished from Arab horses in the seventeenth century by the Duke of Newcastle in his book MEthode et Invention Nouvelle et Dresser Les Chevaux, in which he clearly describes THE TURKS as standing "high, though of unequal shape, being remarkably beautiful active, with plenty of power...." and distinct from an Arab.

Miles states that "The Byerley TURK was a TOORKMAN HORSE."

The Ghazis, who had Eastern Turkik roots, had a powerful influence on the whole Ottoman Empire, and the Ghazis rode their own TURKIK, Steppe-bred Horses. Everything else they regarded as inferior.




ANATOLIAN Ancient breed. Exceptionally hardy; good endurance qualities. Possess a high percentage of Turkoman and Armenian blood.


CANIK Historically assumed to have been bred around Trabzon on the Black Sea.

CUKUROVA Cilician horse thought to have been imported by Soloman. Height 4.92-5.05 ft. and weight 880-1100 lb.; said to be larger than the Anatolian. Old Çukurova type. Breed almost wiped out following World War I.

GEMLIK West coast of Turkey, around Bursa.

GERMIYAN Ancient Turkish breed, preceding the KARAMAN

KAPADOKYA Ancient Turkish breed; throught to be one of the precursors of what is termed an Arab horse.

KARAMAN Most widely-disctributed Ottoman horse; described as a Turk, having Turkoman blood. Bred all over the Ottoman Empire, from Europe and the Balkans to Eastern Anatolia, their traditional homeland. They were much favored in timariot systems. 4.92-5.25 ft.

KARAÇABEY Refined during the eighteenth century.

KASTAMONU No detailed data available.

KURDISH Thought to have been Arab-size.

MALAKAN Composite of Bityug (heavy trotter) and other native Russian breeds, (also influence by Steppe Horses) From northeastern Turkey, now probably extinct.

RUMELI Karaman/Germiyan breed.

UZUNYAYLA Akhal Tekke/Turkoman strain, usually bay.


Al Red ; expected to be untalented.
Demirkır ; Iron-colored, sometimes with white and brown. Considered sacred.
Doru ; Between red and bay. Good for tough missions.
Kır ; Gray, also good for tough missions.
Kula ; Between red and light brown, thought to be unlucky
Yağız ; Between balck and red , considered naughty.

Chronology of the Byerley TURK in Ireland

Shipped from Hoylake
Unloaded in Belfast Lough
The march south
Arrival in Dundalk
The march to Lisburn

Start of march to Downpatrick
The race at Flying horse Road



*A sipahi was a feudel cavalryman who had been granted a timar, a piece of land, in return for military service rendered to the Sultan. Additionally, by the mid 1600s, an elite professional dragoon was drawn from the nobility - the hassa- in the direct pay of the Sultan. Talented horses that were brought to Istanbul from the provinces were gifted to members of the hassa , who were frequently related to the Sultan.

By far the greates number of horses that went to war wree bred by the tımarlı sipahi. In return for holding this land and enjoying its fruits, in the event of war, a tımarlı sipahi had to supply horses and men, and the richer he was, the more he was expected to supply. The hassa sipahi were the richest and were expected to supply large numbers of horses and men. No tımarlı nor hassa sipahi owned the land they occupied : it was land upon which the incumbent lived and from which he drew his income, and upon which the rayah, the country people- the common cattle, as they were called- worked. All sipahi trained their own horses and would not have ventured onto the battlefield on a horse that was either unshooled or did not know the sound of gunfire.

The hassa horses wore diamonds, rubies and emeralds. Their reins were made from silk-embriodered nappa leather, their saddles from the softest hide, their shabracs of felt embroidered in silver and gold. The martingales were tassled with gold, inlaid with precious stones, and silk-lined so as not to mark the horse.

The Turks did not have dress armor; they went to war in all their finery. Examples of it may be viewed in the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul ; also in Vienna and Krakow.

*The Turkish clans of western Siberia, notably the Kıpchaks, owned in excess of two million horses. Of the Uigar Turkik clan, there was a contemporary saying that the number of horses only God knows"

* The Ghazis were an elite group of chivalric warriors who took a sacred oath that bound them to an overlord. They obeyed a futuwwa, a mystical code that was developed in the tenth and eleventh centuries and adopted by guilds and corporations in the Islamic world. Most Ghazis were Turks. They came from the east and not from the south. The horses they brought with them were eastern, and not southern, horses: the Ghazi horses were the early Turkoman horses that became the root stock of horses that were bred for any by great Ottoman military machine.

* The Lore of Whorls
Whorls of possitive Influence

The World of the Prophet: or the The Prophet's Thumbprint. On the sides of the horse's neck. The master will live and die a good Muslim.

The Line of the Sultan : along the lenght of the neck following the windpipe. The horse has the power to avert bad luck.

The Whorl of the Spurs: on the flank. If inclined upward, means safety in battle, if inclined downward riches.

The Whorl of the Breast: The rider's tent will be filled with booty.

The Whorl of the Girth : The tribe's herds and flocks will increase.

Whorl between the Ears: or the Crown-piece of the Bridle. Denotes swiftness in races.

Whorls of Negative Influence

The Whorl above the Eyebrow : The master will die of a blow to the head.

The Whorl of the Coffin: Close to the witners with a downward inclination toward the shoulder. The rider will die in this horse's saddle.

The Whorl of Lamentations : Found on the cheeks; means debts and ruin; labors will nor bear fruit.

The Whorl of Theft: Found on the fetlocks. The horse will be stolen.

The Whorl on One Side of the Tail : Brings trouble, misery and famine.

The Whorl on the Inside of the Buttocks : Means that wives, children and livestock will all be lost.



* From the 1400s, the Janissaries formed a crack regiment of infantry, originally staffed by youths conscripted from Christian families in the Balkans under a system known as devşirme.

Disipline for Janissaries was strict. Paul Rycaut, author and diplomat, English consul in Turkey (1667-1678), recorded that "wine is frunk on pain of death ; the camps are quiet and orderly, no abuses are committed on the people by the March of their army; all is bought and paid with money....there are no Complaints by mothers of the Rape of Virgindaughters, no Violence or robberies offered on the inhabitants ; all which order tends to the succes of the aries, and Enlargement of their Empire."




* Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, the Flemish Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire for the Holy Roman Emperor wrote :

"There is no animal accustomed to humans like Turkish horses. They recognise their masters and the grooms that look after them, immediately. When they train their horses, they treat them gently. When I travelled through the Pontus region and Bithynia into Cappadocia, I saw the peasants giving close attention to their horses. They treated them palyfully ; they took their horses into their homes, nearly invited them to dinner, caressed and loved them. They love their colts like their children. There are necklaces around their necks, which are written with charms against the Evil Eye. People are afraid of the Evil Eye. Those who look after animals also treat them gently. They win their hearts. They do not hit them with sticks when they lose their tempers. As a result, the horses are friendly to humans. There is a vast difference between the way in which we treat our horses and the Turks treat theirs. Our grooms believe that if they do not shout at their horses and hit them that they will do nothing. Because of this when the grooms enter the stable the horses are trembling already with fear, hating them.

The Turks like to train them so that they will kneel down on a single command to let their masters mount easily. The horses are trained so that they pick up a stick or rug, lifting it above their heads, giving them to their masters. Silver rings are attached to the noses of talented horses as a token of their training. I saw horses that remain motionless if their rider falls."

* The Royal Privy Stables were one of the most important institutionas of the Ottoman goverment. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, quartered in billets above the horses in the Privy Stables were the Sultan's seyises or grooms (twenty-six in number) , saddlers , farriers, wagons, water carriers (for horses), muleteers, cameleteers, and donkey drovers. Over three hundred saddlers and three hundred farriers were employed directly by the palace. In all, 3.341 officials grooms , saddlers, horse masters, trainers and horse doctors were engaged by the Sublime Porte.

*Chanfrons are protective faceplates that were used for horses during fifteenth through seventeenth centuries. Both the Askeri Museum in Istanbul and the Stibberts Musuem in Florence hold large collections of chanfrons. 

These items have survived intact because they are made of copper and plated in gold. Each chanfron was made to fit an invidual horse. All of the chanfrons in the Askeri Museum in Istanbul were made to fit horses with either straight faces or with slightly convex faces. There appear to be none made to fit horses with the spoon, or dished, faces characteristic of Arab horses.

Chanfrons to fit dishedfaced horses may be found in the Stibberts Museum in Florence, which houses collections of Mameluke armor from Egypt. ( Mameluke-Memlük = meaning "property" or "owned slave" of the king; is an Arabic designation for slaves. The most enduring Mamluk realm was the military caste in medieval Egypt that rose from the ranks of slave soldiers who were mainly Cumans-Kipchaks of Turkic, Circassian and Georgian of origin.-SB)

This would be consistent with the use of Arab horses. The chanfrons in Stibberts were made to fit faces considerably smaller than the Ottoman chanfrons in Istanbul, which measure from 23 to 28 in., so they would fit horses ranging from 15.3 hh to 17.2 hh.

* Mehmet IV's hunting expeditions were notorious. He hunted all his life on a massive scale, some of his expeditions involving fifteen judical districts, the services of thirty thousand men, and in one case the deaths of thirty people.

* The Royal grooms, the seyises, were maintained under the scrutinizing eye of the baş imrahor, who was responsible for the selection of the best quality horses and brought them from all across the Empire for hunting, for the selection of the best quality horses and brought them from all across the Empire for hunting, for training, for horse games - which included CİRİT, TOP, ÇEVGAN - and for war. His staff managed the great state studs.

*The At Meydanı arena can still be seen today in front of Sultan Ahmed, The Blue Mosque in Istanbul. It was originally built as a arena for chariot racing in Roman times. Today the column of Theodosius, the Obelisk, and the Spiral Column remain. The four horses of the quadriga overlooked this arena from Roman times until the twelfth century, when they were plundered by Crusaders, taken to Venice, and set on the portico of St. Mark's Cathedral. (They are now in a museum, and replicas stand on St.Mark's.)

* The original stables consisted of seventeen separate buildings along the outer palace walls and along the store of the Marmara. They housed more than a thousand horses, reserved for state occasions and pastured in the meadows of Kağıthane on the Golden Horne. (Haliç)

Horse tack treasury was kept in great chests eight foot long and four foot wide in the case of the baş imrahor. This was kept outside the palace at his headquarters in Vefa near Saraçhane.

The Turks horses went to battle in all their finery, and their finery was dazzling. Wonderful examples of Ottoman armory can be seen at the Topkapı Museum (Armory) and Askeri Museum in Istanbul.


The Military Museum - İstanbul

* Occupying a powerful strategic position over Ottoman Hungary, Györ was a fortress held by the Hapsburg İmperial forces. It was to be the principal focus of the Turkish attack.

* Here is one yewitness account of the Sultan and his bodyguard leaving Istanbul on October 10,1682 (with thanks to the Bodleian Library for their permission to reproduce this) :

"a sight so expos'd to view the greatest riches of the Empire, consisting in Jewels of inestimable value, Horses, Clothes and furniture. The manificence whereof is not to be expressed in writing, unless it was possible to shew you Horses Furniture (harness) covered over with Diamonds, Rubies and Emeralds ; and the Horses themselves more remarkable than their furniture: they proceeded in order: 



Ottoman Turk Empire armor belonging to Sultan Mustafa III (1717–1774)
Tolga/miğfer (helmet), zirah (mail shirt), mail trousers, kolluk/bazu band (vambrace/arm guards), shamshir (sabre), decorated with gold and encrusted with jewels, 18th century
 Imperial Treasury of Topkapı Palace, Istanbul

First, A Body of horseman Armed Cap-a-pe with their bows, Quivers, swords and lances;

Next the Bashaws, each with his retinue of led horses, handsome pages with Coats of Mail richly drest: Ad next, all the Caddees, or Justices, wth Turbants at least a yard in diameter, with their attendants :After them proceeded the Chiaufs of the Viziers who bring people to justices before him, with prodigious long turbants, but not so big as the Caddees, and with them their followers: To them succeeded the Emirs, or Kindred of Mahomet, all with Green Heads to distinguish them: next came the Vizier's chia (Nor Secretary) with a vast and rich retinue of led Horses, pages and Agas ; next came the Great treasurer, or Defterdar, with a greater (number of) Attendants of like nature;

Then appeated a great number of Horses richly trapped, and led by very fine pages, and followed by many persons of quality, Attendants on the Two, which immediately succeeded on most stately Horses, with rich furniture, being the mosaip, or Favourite, (who married the Grand Signiors Daughter) and Kara Kiah, the greatest officier in the Empire, next the Vizier, called Chamcham, who were attended by a vast number of pages, on foot and on Horseback :

Then past the two Cadalesches or Lord Chief Justices, then the Vizier's Guard covered over with the skins of Lyons, Bears, Tygers and Leopards and every one differently habited : next came the Sic Horse-Tails; carried before the Vizier by Eighteen Men, on poles of ten yeards long; then Fifty of the Vizier's Pages on foot on each side the way, between whom Rode Himself, and the Mufty : After him all his Agas and Great Officers of his Household, with a number of pages ; Next several of the Grand Signiors, Eunuchs ; and after them a Kızlar Aga or black Eunuch, with Attendants equal to the Viziers ; He was succeeded by bawling Holy Men;

Lean ill favoured, praying all the way for the Signiour's Life, and the Propogation of their Law; These were followed by two of the greatest camels to be found in the Empire; the first of which carried the Cloathes of Mahomet, which he wore in his Life time; the latter carried the Alcoran as it was delivered by Mahomet to his Successors : Which Beasts, when they die, the Turks perswade themselves go to heaven.

After camels, and before the Grand Signior, Rode Soliman Chia (Friend of our Nation) Master of the Horse to the Grand Signiours, and his Favourite , but mortal enemy to the Vizier; after him rode the Grand Signior on a Milk White Horse, covered with unvaluable jewels, attended by pages drest alike with caps of Masly-Gold; 

Their Habit Cloth of Gold; reaching down below their knees, girded with a girdle of three inches broad, covered as thick with diamonds and other jewels as they could be fet together. After these rode the Prince in a plain habit, and on an ordinary Horse, followed by about four hundred, all the Grand Signiors Pages, Armed with Caps and Coats of Mail, Gauntlets, Swords and targets, each with a Quiver of Gilt arrows on his right side and bow on his left; the Case of which and the Quiver of some, was set.....

more to read:link

The Byerley Turk: The Incredible Story of the World's First Thoroughbred 
by Jeremy James

STIRRUPS PAIR - 17th-18th centuries

Iron, gold, silver and turquoise

Pair of stirrups of rectangular shape, in iron, with inlayed drawings in gold and silver, enriched with the application of turquoise gemstones.

These pieces are part of the production of the Turkish Ottoman Empire .

Jorge Caravan Collection

Sword : 19th century; Blade: circa 1576 – 1625

Steel, gold, silver, rhinoceros horn, wood, shagreen leather, iron
Full length; 94, 5 cm; blade length: 80 cm

The Kılıç is a type of Turkish sword, equivalent to the European sabre, originating in the late 15th century, in the Ottoman Empire where it had a prominent role in horse fighting.

It is characterized by the large size of the blade, which is narrow and single edged, slightly curved, with a pronounced double edged tip. Both sides are filled with cartouches and reserves with inscriptions and vegetal elements, engraved and encrusted in gold.

The hilt, in the characteristic shape of a pistol handgrip, is sculpted out of rhinoceros horn and displays a cruciform hand-guard, made of engraved and chiselled silver with geometric and vegetable motifs.

The scabbard, made of wood, is covered in shagreen leather, sewn with silver thread. Silver mounts, stamped with the Tughra or official monogram of the ruler, probably the Sultan Abdull Meijid (1839-1861). Iron tip, decorated in gold with a depiction of an anchor in its extremity.

Jorge Caravan Collection


Damascene steel, buffalo horn, gold
Full length: 73.2 cm; blade length: 57 cm.

Yatagan with single-edged slightly curved blade, decorated with extensive gold damascening in the form of large panels of floral design issuing a series of palmettes and including, on one side, a talismanic numerical grid, and on the other lines of naskh.

Inscribed with the owner's name, Tatarcia Husayn Agha, and makers name, i'amal Sheikh 'Ali Efendi.

The chappe has further similar damascening, the ox horn hilt being of typical form with split flaring pommel and set with four stones backed with small rosette finials. The cross guard has a further damascened inscription.

Jorge Caravan Collection


" Kayı teorisi Osmanlı hanedanını yüceltmek için ortaya atılmış bir teoriden ibarettir. Timur'un oğlu Şahruh, İkinci Murat zamanında kendisine bir hil'at (Hükümdarların takdir için bir kimseye verdikleri cübbe) gönderip bunu giymesini, kendi egemenliğini tanımasını istemiştir. Zira Timur ve oğulları kendilerini Oğuzhan neslinden sayarlar.

Büyük hanlığın kendilerine ait olduğunu iddia ederler. İşte bu iddia karşısında II. Murad kendi bağımsızlığını göstermek üzere Oğuzname destanını kullanmış ve Osman Bey'in Oğuzhan'ın neslinden olduğu iddiasını benimsemiştir.

Kayı menşei iddiası, Timuroğulları'nın Oğuzhan'dan geldikleri iddiasına karşı siyasi bir iddiadır. Bu bir kurgudur. Fatih zamanında şehzadelere Oğuz, Korkut adlarını vermişler ve topların üzerine Kayı damgasını koymaya başlamışlardır. Kayı teorisi Osmanlı hanedanını yüceltmek için ortaya atılmış bir teoriden ibarettir. Bunu 40 yıl önce de yazmıştım. " ...Halil İnalcık.


Saltanatı : 30 Mayıs 1876- 31 Ağustos 1876 (3 ay 1 gün)  - (D:1840 - Ö:1904)


HANÇER - TÜRK 1732-1733




KHANJAR DAGGER - 17th Century

Wootz Steel.
North Indian Khanjar dagger. The hilt is of chiseled steel, with fully-modeled ram’s head pommel. The knucklebow issues from a makara’s mouth and terminates in a horse’s head, while the guard is chiseled with elephant’s heads in relief.

The broad, curved double-edged blade forged of fine silver wootz damascus steel, bears two deep fullers and a pronounced median ridge, developing into a thick armor-piercing tip.

Jorge Caravan Collection


At ile gömü Türk Kültürü


Türkçesi de var: link

Jeremy James

Bir İmparatorluk… Bir at… Bir seyis... Üç kent… 
Viyana, Buda, İstanbul…

1683'te Osmanlı'nın Viyana'yı kuşatmasıyla başlayan bir tarih sahnesi. Sahnenin önünde varlığını atıyla bütünleştirmiş ‘Gazi' yemini eden evlad-ı fâtihan bir Seyis ve kökleri Orta Asya'ya Atilla'ya ve Cengiz Han'a uzanan Türkmen soyundan bir Karaman atı Azaraks (Ateşin Oğlu). Kökleri gibi yaşamları da aynı olan bu iki varlığın yazgıları da bir.

Osmanlı'nın İkinci Viyana Kuşatması'nda oradalar. Bozgunu yaşıyorlar. Ardından Hıristiyan orduları Buda Kalesi'ni kuşattığında (1686) ise yine birlikteler. 'Buda düşerse İstanbul da düşer' diyorlar ve diğer Gazi'lerle birlikte kaleyi kahramanca savunuyorlar.

Ancak tarihin kırılma noktasında Osmanlı'nın yazgısını değiştiremiyor ve Buda Kalesi'yle birlikte onlar da bir İngiliz birliğine esir düşüyorlar. 

İstanbul, Viyana, Buda derken kader onları bu sefer Londra'ya sürüklüyor. Aristokrat Albay Robert Byerley hem Azaraks'ı hem de Seyis'i satın alıyor ve sahipleniyor. Bundan böyle Azaraks'ın adı İngiltere'de Byerley Turk olarak anılacaktır.  Atın şöhreti bütün İngiltere'ye yayılmıştır. Hem aygır hem yarış atı olarak fırtınalar estiren kahramanımızın şeceresi bugün günümüze kadar hâlâ devam ediyor.

Tarihsel gerçekliğin içine oturtulmuş nefes kesen, sürükleyici bir kurgu. Bilinmeyen şaşırtıcı bir gerçek. Ayrıntılarda saklı kalmış tarihsel bir roman.


Truva'ya neden AT şeklinde tuzak kuruldu biliyor musunuz? - LİNK